Science of The Total Environment;
JAN 1 2018.
Citações Web of Science:
In southern Brazil, the recent increase in tropospheric ozone (O-3) concentrations poses an additional threat to the biodiverse but endangered and fragmented remnants of the Atlantic Forest. Given the mostly unknown sensitivity of tropical species to oxidative stress, the principal objective of this study was to determine whether the current O-3 levels in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), downwind of Sao Paulo, affect the native vegetation of forest remnants. Foliar responses to O-3 of three tree species typical of the MRC forests were investigated using indoor chamber exposure experiments under controlled conditions and a field survey. Exposure to 70 ppb O-3 reduced assimilation and leaf conductance but increased respiration in Astronium graveolens while gas exchange in Croton floribundus was little affected. Both A. graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha developed characteristic O-3-induced injury in the foliage, similar to visible symptoms observed in >30% of trees assessed in the MRC, while C. floribundus remained asymptomatic. The underlying structural symptoms in both O-3-exposed and field samples were indicative of oxidative burst, hypersensitive responses, accelerated cell senescence and, primarily in field samples, interaction with photo-oxidative stress. The markers of O-3 stress were thus mostly similar to those observed in other regions of the world. Further research is needed, to estimate the proportion of sensitive forest species, the O-3 impact on tree growth and stand stability and to detect O-3 hot spots where woody species in the Atlantic Forest are mostly affected. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (AU)