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Association of CYP3A5 and PGP polymorphisms and haplotypes with tacrolimus pharmacokinetics, acute nephrotoxicity and allograft rejection after kidney transplantation

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Diego Alberto Ciscato Cusinato
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Eduardo Barbosa Coelho; Marcio Dantas; Elen Almeida Romão
Advisor: Eduardo Barbosa Coelho

Tacrolimus (TAC) is widely used to prevent acute rejection following solid-organ transplantation. This drug is characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and drug monitoring programs are required both to optimize efficacy and to limit toxicity. TAC is known to be substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 and P-glycoprotein (PGP/ABCB) and its been suggested that genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) of these proteins are highly associated with variations in TAC pharmacokinetics. We investigated the influence of polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 gene on the pharmacokinetic parameters (PK) of TAC and on the incidence of kidney injuries and allograft rejection (AR) in renal transplant recipients. Patients receiving TAC for at least 12 months (n=108) were genotyped (real-time PCR) for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746) and for ABCB1 1236C>T (rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (rs2032582) and 3435C>T (rs1045642) polymorphisms. TAC predose concentration (Co; ng/mL), TAC daily dose (mg/day per kg body weight) and dose-normalized predose concentrations (Co/dose; ng/mL per mg/day per kg body weight) were retrieved from medical records up to 03 years after transplantation. Clinical outcomes were analyzed evaluating renal function in terms of creatinine clearance ( Cockroft-Gault equation) and allograft survival. Kidney injuries and AR diagnostics were established by clinical suspicion and in presence of histological findings in renal biopsies according to the 2007 Banff classification. ABCB1 gene haplotypes were statistically inferred using PHASE software (version 2.1). No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in our study population for the polymorphic loci examined in CYP3A5 and ABCB1. Allelic frequencies of these polymorphisms (6986G 74%; 1236C 60%; 3435C 60% and 2677G 65%) and haplotypes (49% 2677G-3435C-1236C and 30% 2677T- 3435T-1236T) were consistent with other studies in the Brazilian population. Individuals carrying at least one CYP3A5*1 allele required higher TAC dose to achieve similar TAC blood levels as the homozygous individuals for the *3 allele (0.09 ± 0.03 vs.0.06 ± 0.03, mg/day per kg body weight, p<0.001). The presence of the CYP3A5*1 allele was also associated with lower TAC Co/dose compared to CYP*3 homozygous (84.9 ± 43.2 vs. 144.6 ± 66.7 ng/mL per mg/day per kg body weight, p<0.001). Regarding ABCB1 polymorphisms, individuals homozygous for the variant allele of each individual SNP and for the haplotype (TTT) showed higher Co/dose ratio. No associations were found between SNPs or haplotypes and allograft survival or creatinine clearance. We did find, though, that patients carrying GCC haplotype had a higher incidence of chronic rejection. Our findings confirm the effect of CYP3A5 and, less pronounced of ABCB1 polymorphisms, on the TAC pharmacokinetic. On the other hand, we did not find any association between these polymorphisms and relevant clinical outcomes, suggesting that CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genotyping must not be incorporated as a useful clinical tool on the management of kidney transplantation. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/03377-2 - Association of CYP3A5 and P-gP polymorphisms with acute nephrotoxicity to tacrolimus after kidney transplantation
Grantee:Diego Alberto Ciscato Cusinato
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master