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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Morphology and Involution of the Yolk Sac during Early Gestation Bovine (Bos indicus)

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de Assis Neto, Antonio Chaves [1] ; de Oliveira, Franceliusa Delys [1] ; Piemonte Constantino, Maria Vitoria [1] ; Miglino, Maria Angelica [1]
Total Authors: 4
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Vet Med & Anim Sci, Dept Surg, BR-05508 Sao Paulo - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 1
Document type: Journal article
Source: Acta Scientiae Veterinariae; v. 40, n. 4 2012.
Web of Science Citations: 0

Background: The bovine yolk sac derives from visceral endoderm and its development occurs between days 18-23 of gestation. The study of this membrane is important for comparative data and has already been performed in rodents, sheep and in cattle, especially Bos taunts. In species Bos indicus the yolk sac has not quite been studied and is believed that there are morphological differences between these species. The yolk sac undergoes a process of involution and degeneration during embryonic development and none vestige of it is found in late gestation. The period in which occurs the involution of the yolk sac coincides with the period of increased pregnancy loss in cattle, and changes in the morphology of this membrane may indicate the reasons for such high loss rates. Thus, considering that the yolk sac is important for embryonic circulation and metabolic transmission, besides participating actively in the process of cattle placentation, this study aimed characterize morphologically the involution of the bovine yolk sac. Materials, Methods \& Results: The early gestational period was determined between days 20 and 70 post-insemination (p.i), according to the exterior characteristics of embryo/fetus. For macroscopic analyzes the uterus was dissected to expose the fetal membranes and subsequently the embryo/fetus was photographed. The samples were fixed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The yolk sac that emerges from the ventral part of the embryo was prominent and composed by a central part with two thin peripheral projections of different lengths. The bovine yolk sac with about 9 cm on day 25 p. i. of pregnancy permanently decreased its total length during this study. Histologically, the yolk sac is composed of three cell layers: the mesothelium, the mesenchyme and the endoderm. In mesenchyme are found blood islets. In the endoderm are formed cells invaginations toward the mesenchyme originating small canaliculi. The ultrastructure of yolk cells presented many mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, euchromatin and the presence of two nucleoli, Discussion: The real first blood circulation in the bovine is attached with the development of yolk sac, differently from other membranes, such as the corium, that does not present evidence of vascularization by the age of 20-30 days. The erythroblasts found in the yolk sac are related to vasculogenesis and the process of differentiation of blood cells during the erythropoiesis. It could be observed on the histology of the yolk sac, in embryos of 30-50 days old, the presence of canaliculi and small folds of the epithelium. The canaliculi collapse is associated with the degeneration of the endoderm wall of the yolk sac. The organelles present in the endoderm cells of the yolk sac are associated with the function of protein metabolism and in the exchange of substances between the mesenchyme and the mesothelium, For these findings, could be observed that the yolk sac epithelium is found active until the 50th day of gestation, and thereafter regresses. However, remnants of this membrane may be present until the 70th day, These features may represent a presence of an active chorionvitelline placenta in this period responsible for the maintenance of pregnancy whereas the chorioallantoic placenta is not definitively established. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 08/58811-6 - The viteline enigma
Grantee:Maria Angelica Miglino
Support Opportunities: Research Projects - Thematic Grants