Journal of Experimental Botany;
OCT 26 2021.
Web of Science Citations:
The root system commonly lies underground, where it provides anchorage for the aerial organs, as well as nutrients and water. Both endogenous and environmental cues contribute to the establishment of the root system. Among the endogenous cues, microRNAs (miRNAs), transcription factors, and phytohormones modulate root architecture. miRNAs belong to a subset of endogenous hairpin-derived small RNAs that post-transcriptionally control target gene expression, mostly transcription factors, comprising the miRNA regulatory hubs. Phytohormones are signaling molecules involved in most developmental processes. Some miRNAs and targets participate in more than one hormonal pathway, thereby providing new bridges in plant hormonal crosstalk. Unraveling the intricate network of molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of root systems is a central aspect in the development of novel strategies for plant breeding to increase yield and optimize agricultural land use. In this review, we summarize recent findings describing the molecular mechanisms associated with the interplay between miRNA regulatory hubs and phytohormones to ensure the establishment of a proper root system. We focus on post-embryonic growth and development of primary, lateral, and adventitious roots. In addition, we discuss novel insights for future research on the interaction between miRNAs and phytohormones in root architecture. (AU)