Johansen, Igor C.
Rodrigues, Priscila T.
Castro, Marcia C.
Ferreira, Marcelo U.
Total Authors: 6
 Univ Sao Paulo, Parasitol, Sao Paulo - Brazil
 Yale Univ, Sch Med, Internal Med, New Haven, CT - USA
 Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA - USA
Total Affiliations: 3
Web of Science Citations:
Purpose This population-based open cohort study aims to investigate biological and sociodemographic drivers of malaria transmission in the main urban hotspot of Amazonian Brazil. Participants Nearly 20% of the households in the northwestern town of Mancio Lima were randomly selected and 2690 participants were enrolled since April 2018. Sociodemographic, housing quality, occupational, behavioural and morbidity information and travel histories were collected during consecutive study visits. Blood samples from participants>3 months old were used for malaria diagnosis and human genetic studies; samples from participants with laboratory-confirmed malaria have been cryopreserved for genetic and phenotypic characterisation of parasites. Serology was introduced in 2020 to measure the prevalence and longevity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Findings to date Malaria prevalence rates were low (up to 1.0% for Plasmodium vivax and 0.6% for P. falciparum) during five consecutive cross-sectional surveys between April-May 2018 and October-November 2020; 63% of infections diagnosed by microscopy were asymptomatic. Malaria risk is heterogeneously distributed, with 20% study participants contributing 86% of the overall burden of P. vivax infection. Adult males are at greatest risk of infection and human mobility across the urban-rural interface may contribute to sustained malaria transmission. Local P. vivax parasites are genetically diverse and fragmented into discrete inbred lineages that remain stable across space and time. Future plans Two follow-up visits, with similar study protocols, are planned in 2021. We aim to identify high-risk individuals that fuel onwards malaria transmission and represent a priority target for more intensive and effective control interventions. (AU)