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Proteomics and lipidomics evaluation of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis treated with omega-3 fatty acids

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Livia Samara dos Reis Rodrigues Okada
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina (FM/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Dan Linetzky Waitzberg; Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg; Claudia Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira
Advisor: Dan Linetzky Waitzberg

INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered a public health problem, given its increasing incidence and its possible role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Current therapies involve diet and lifestyle changes, but its applicability suffers from low patients adherence. Pharmacological approaches are still missing. A main difficulty in the NASH management lies in the limited understanding of its pathophysiology, which seems to involve complex metabolic and inflammatory disturbances. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are recognized for its modulatory properties on lipid metabolism and inflammation and are decreased in patients with NASH. The clinical use of these PUFAs has shown benefit in controlling steatosis and the production of metabolic and inflammatory response markers in NASH, despite some conflicting reports. Understanding mechanisms modulated by n-3 PUFAs in NASH may be useful for identifying molecular targets that could assist in the design of effective pharmacologic interventions. In this sense, omics sciences are particularly useful for understanding molecular mechanisms with high translational value to clinical practice and may contribute to the identification of these targets. AIM: This study evaluated the liver proteomic and plasma lipidomics responses of patients with NASH towards treatment with n-3 PUFAs. METHODS: The proteomic and lipidomic evaluations were studied by mass spectrometry and / or gas chromatography in samples from liver biopsies and plasma collected from patients enrolled in a preliminary clinical trial of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. This study involved adult patients of both sexes diagnosed with NASH treated daily for 6 months, with 3 capsules containing a mixture of linseed and fish oils [0.315 g PUFAs: 0.065 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) , 0.050 g docosahexaenoic (DHA) and 0.2 g alpha linolenic acid (ALA) per capsule]. Patients, after treatment with n-3 PUFAs, with higher concentrations of ALA and DHA and lower arachidonic acid (AA) showed improvement of liver histology alterations. In the present study we evaluated the proteomics pathways and lipidomics markers resulted from treatment with PUFAs n-3. This was performed by comparing, before (BT group) and after (AT group) treatment, liver tissue pools (analysis interactome) and plasma samples (OPLS-DA). RESULTS: It was identified, in a way exclusive and altered, the expressed liver proteins in AT group, related to pathways of cellular matrix, lipid metabolism, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress and cellular respiration. With the exception of cell matrix, the analysis of the interactome revealed substantial functional alterations of the pathways modulated by these proteins. Together, these changes were suggestive of decreased lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and anaerobic respiration and increased aerobic respiration following treatment with PUFAs n-3. These modifications are potential markers of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions improvement. In addition, after treatment with n-3 PUFAs, the lipidomics profile was modified, with significant increase in glycerophospholipids, ALA and EPA and decrease of arachidonic acid (AA) and n-6/n-3 AGPIs ratio. These findings are concordant with potential improvement of reticulum endoplasmic and mitochondrial functions. CONCLUSION: In patients with NASH the treatment with n-3 PUFAs favorably influenced hepatic proteomic and systemic lipidomics profiles. Together, these changes suggest improved endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions, with potential impact on cellular homeostasis through the modulation of different biological pathways (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/03742-8 - Lipidomic and proteomic assessment of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Grantee:Lívia Samara dos Reis Rodrigues Okada
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)