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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Monthly biological larviciding associated with a tenfold decrease in larval density in fish farming ponds and reduced community-wide malaria incidence in northwestern Brazil

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Fontoura, Pablo S. [1] ; Silva, Marcos F. [2] ; da Costa, Anderson S. [1] ; Ribeiro, Francismar S. [1] ; Ferreira, Marcilio S. [1] ; Ladeia-Andrade, Simone [3] ; Tonini, Juliana [1] ; Rodrigues, Priscila T. [1] ; Castro, Marcia C. [4] ; Ferreira, Marcelo U. [1]
Total Authors: 10
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Parasitol, Inst Biomed Sci, Av Prof Lineu Prestes 1374, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Fed Acre, Multidisciplinary Ctr, Cruzeiro Do Sul - Brazil
[3] Fiocruz MS, Lab Parasit Dis, Oswaldo Cruz Inst, BR-21045900 Rio De Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
[4] Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 - USA
Total Affiliations: 4
Document type: Journal article
Source: PARASITES & VECTORS; v. 14, n. 1 SEP 3 2021.
Web of Science Citations: 0

Background: Larvicides are typically applied to fixed and findable mosquito breeding sites, such as fish farming ponds used in commercial aquaculture, to kill immature forms and thereby reduce the size of adult malaria vector populations. However, there is little evidence suggesting that larviciding may suppress community-wide malaria transmission outside Africa. Here, we tested whether the biological larvicide VectoMax FG applied at monthly intervals to fish farming ponds can reduce malaria incidence in Amazonian Brazil. Methods: This study was carried out in Vila Assis Brasil (VAB; population 1700), a peri-urban malaria hotspot in northwestern Brazil with a baseline annual parasite incidence of 553 malaria cases per 1000 inhabitants. The intervention consisted of monthly treatments with 20 kg/ha of VectoMax FG of all water-filled fish ponds in VAB (n ranging between 167 and 170) with a surface area between 20 and 8000 m(2), using knapsack power mistblowers. We used single-group interrupted time-series analysis to compare monthly larval density measurements in fish ponds during a 14-month pre-intervention period (September 2017-October 2018), with measurements made during November 2018-October 2019 and shortly after the 12-month intervention (November 2019). We used interrupted time-series analysis with a comparison group to contrast the malaria incidence trends in VAB and nearby nonintervention localities before and during the intervention. Results: Average larval densities decreased tenfold in treated fish farming ponds, from 0.467 (95% confidence interval {[}CI], 0.444-0.490) anopheline larvae per dip pre-intervention (September 2017-October 2018) to 0.046 (95% CI, 0.041-0.051) larvae per dip during (November 2018-October 2019) and shortly after the intervention (November 2019). Average malaria incidence rates decreased by 0.08 (95% CI, 0.04-0.11) cases per 100 person-months (P < 0.0001) during the intervention in VAB and remained nearly unchanged in comparison localities. We estimate that the intervention averted 24.5 (95% CI, 6.2-42.8) malaria cases in VAB between January and December 2019. Conclusions: Regular larviciding is associated with a dramatic decrease in larval density and a modest but significant decrease in community-wide malaria incidence. Larviciding may provide a valuable complementary vector control strategy in commercial aquaculture settings across the Amazon. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/18740-9 - Scientific bases for residual malaria elimination in the Brazilian Amazon
Grantee:Marcelo Urbano Ferreira
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants
FAPESP's process: 18/03902-9 - Spatial and temporal dynamics of malaria transmission in residual hotspots in the Brazilian Amazon
Grantee:Priscila Thihara Rodrigues
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 16/25617-9 - Impact assessment of biolarvicides use in malaria control in a high transmission area in the Brazilian Amazon
Grantee:Pablo Secato Fontoura
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate