Fed Univ Grande Dourados, Fac Hlth Sci, Dourados, MS - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 2
International Journal of Pharmaceutics;
SEP 5 2021.
Web of Science Citations:
Bupivacaine is the most employed local anesthetic in surgical procedures, worldwide. Its systemic toxicity has directed the synthesis of the less toxic, S(-) enantiomer. This work describes a formulation of ionic gradient liposomes (IGL) containing S75BVC, an enantiomeric excess mixture of 75% S(-) and 25% R(+) bupivacaine. IGL prepared with 250 mM (NH4)(2)SO4 in the inner aqueous core of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (3:2 mol%) vesicles plus 0.5% S75BVC showed average sizes of 312.5 +/- 4.5 nm, low polydispersity (PDI < 0.18), negative zeta potentials (-14.2 +/- 0.2 mV) and were stable for 360 days. The encapsulation efficiency achieved with IGL(S75BVC) (%EE = 38.6%) was higher than with IGL prepared with racemic bupivacaine (IGL(RBVC), %EE = 28.3%). TEM images revealed spherical vesicles and mu DSC analysis provided evidence on the interaction of the anesthetic with the lipid bilayer. Then, in vitro release kinetics and cytotoxicity- and in vivo - toxic effects in Zebrafish and biochemical/histopathological analysis plus analgesia in Wistar rats tests were performed. IGL(S75BVC) exhibited negligible toxicity against Schwann cells and Zebrafish larvae, and it did not affect biochemical markers or the morphology of rat tissues (heart, brain, cerebellum, sciatic nerve). The in vitro release of S75BVC from IGL was extended from 4 to 24 h, justifying the prolonged anesthetic effect measured in rats (similar to 9 h). The advantages of IGL(S75BVC) formulation over IGL(RBVC) and plain bupivacaine formulations (prolonged anesthesia, preferential sensorial blockade, and no toxicity) confirm its potential for clinical use in surgical anesthesia. (AU)