Univ Torino, Dipartimento Sci Terra, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Turin - Italy
Total Affiliations: 5
JUL 1 2021.
Web of Science Citations:
Mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ultrahigh-temperature (>900 degrees C) metamorphism are generally restricted to Mg- and Al-rich rocks. However, in many metamorphic terrains such compositions do not occur, and the rocks are dominated by orthogneisses that typically contain high-variance mineral assemblages that are not diagnostic of particular pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions. Here we use whole-rock and mineral chemistry, thermodynamic phase equilibrium modelling, and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data to constrain the P-T-time history of granulites from the Socorro-Guaxupe Nappe of the Southern Brasilia Orogen. These rocks occur as part of a stack of Neoproterozoic nappes that were assembled during the formation of West Gondwana. Based on phase equilibrium modelling, the peak assemblage in a garnet-bearing felsic granulite (ortho- and clinopyroxene, garnet, K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, ilmenite, and silicate melt) records pressures of around 11.5 kbar and temperatures of similar to 1000 degrees C, consistent with the high-Al content of orthopyroxene. The retrograde path records a small decrease in pressure to 9 kbar marked by orthopyroxene replacing garnet and the exsolution of magnetite from ilmenite followed by near-isobaric cooling that led to the development of coronas of hornblende around pyroxene due to crystallization of the last vestiges of melt. Zircon cores yielding U-Pb ages of ca. 625 Ma are interpreted as dating close-to-peak conditions during high-temperature metamorphism. In one sample, zircon rims and `soccer ball' zircon neoblasts both have high U contents and yield ages of ca. 615 Ma, interpreted to mark the onset of melt crystallization. In two other samples, low-U rims and `soccer ball' zircons grains yield ages of ca. 600-595 Ma, interpreted to date the end of melt crystallization. These data reveal a protracted regional metamorphic event in which the lower crust remained at granulite-facies conditions for at least 30 Myr during collision and assembly of West Gondwana. (AU)