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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Nano- and Micro- Carnauba Wax Emulsions versus Shellac Protective Coatings on Postharvest Citrus Quality

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Miranda, Marcela [1] ; Sun, Xiuxiu [2] ; Ference, Christopher [2] ; Plotto, Anne [2] ; Bai, Jinhe [2] ; Wood, David [2] ; Garrido Assis, Odilio Benedito [3] ; Ferreira, Marcos David [3] ; Baldwin, Elizabeth [2]
Total Authors: 9
[1] Sao Paulo State Univ, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, BR-14800901 Araraquara, SP - Brazil
[2] ARS, US Hort Res Lab, USDA, 2001 South Rock Rd, Ft Pierce, FL 34945 - USA
[3] Embrapa Instrumentacao Brazilian Agr Res Corp, BR-13560970 Sao Carlos, SP - Brazil
Total Affiliations: 3
Document type: Journal article
Web of Science Citations: 0

Coatings are generally applied to fruit as microemulsions, but nanoemulsions are still experimental. `Nova' mandarins (Citrus reticulata) were coated with shellac or carnauba (Copernica cerifera) microemulsions or an experimental carnauba nanoemulsion; these were compared with an uncoated control during storage for 7 days at 20 degrees C. Coatings were also tested on `Unique' tangors (C. reticulata x C. sinensis) stored for 14 days at 10 degrees C followed by a simulated marketing period of 7 days at 20 degrees C. Fruit quality evaluations included weight loss, gloss, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), pH, SS/TA ratio, internal CO2, O-2, fruit juice ethanol, and other aroma volatile content. Sensory visual shine and tangerine (C. reticulata) flavor rank tests after storage were conducted, followed by an off-flavor rating. The carnauba waxes resulted in less weight loss compared with the uncoated control and shellac coating during both experiments. There were no differences in gloss measurements of `Nova' mandarins; however, shellac-coated fruit ranked highest for shine in a sensory test. For `Unique' tangors, initially, shellac showed the highest gloss (shine) measurement; however, at the end of storage, the nanoemulsion exhibited the highest gloss, although it was not different from that of the microemulsion. Similarly, after storage, the nanoemulsion ranked highest for visual shine, although it was not different from that of the microemulsion. There were only minor differences in SS, TA, pH, and SS/TA among treatments. The internal CO2 gas concentration and juice ethanol content generally increased and internal O-2 decreased during storage. The highest levels of CO2 and ethanol were found for the shellac treatment, as was the lowest O-2, indicating anaerobic respiration. There were only minor differences among the other coating treatments; however, they were only sometimes different from those of the control, which generally had the highest O-2, lowest CO2, and lowest ethanol. Shellac and the carnauba microemulsion also altered the volatile profile more than the control and the nanoemulsion did, especially for `Unique' tangors. For `Unique' tangors, the control and nanoemulsion ranked highest for tangerine flavor and had the least off-flavor at the end of storage. Among the coatings tested, the carnauba emulsions demonstrated less water loss, imparted more sustainable gloss, and caused less ethanol production than shellac, with the nanoemulsion exhibiting higher gloss measurements, less modifications of the atmosphere and volatile profile, and, consequently, better flavor compared with the microemulsion. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 16/23419-5 - Application of ginger extracts as natural fungicid in nanoestrutured coatings on papaya fruit postharvest
Grantee:Marcela Miranda
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate