Willemart, Rodrigo H.
Sharma, Prashant P.
Total Authors: 4
 Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Integrat Biol, 352 Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Dr, Madison, WI 53706 - USA
 Univ Sao Paulo, Lab Ecol Sensorial & Comportamento Artropodes, Escola Artes Ciencias & Humanidades, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, BR-03828000 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
 Harvard Univ, Museum Comparat Zool, 26 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA 02138 - USA
 Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, 26 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA 02138 - USA
Total Affiliations: 4
Web of Science Citations:
Sexually dimorphic traits are widespread in animals, and include sex-specific weapons, ornamentation and, although less noticed, glands and associated structures. In arachnids, certain lineages of the order Opiliones exhibit diverse forms of dimorphism in the armature and length of appendages (common in Laniatores), as well as in the presence of sexually dimorphic glands (mostly investigated in Cyphophthalmi), positing harvestmen as promising models to study sexual dimorphism. Whereas the evolution and ecological significance of armature have been the focus of recent attention, sexually dimorphic glands remain understudied in groups other than Cyphophthalmi, despite being widespread in Opiliones. We therefore selected the amphi-Pacific family Zalmoxidae as an ideal taxon to investigate the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. We first describe four new species of Palaeotropical Zalmoxis, including a species with sexually dimorphic glands, and describe the morphology of zalmoxid species with sexually dimorphic glands using scanning electron microscopy. Using a previously assembled six-locus dataset supplemented with new terminals, and applying stochastic character mapping, we infer that sexually dimorphic glands evolved once in the Neotropics and at least four times in the Palaeotropic zalmoxids, revealing the evolutionary lability of this trait. (AU)