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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observed Transport and Variability

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Frajka-Williams, Eleanor [1] ; Ansorge, Isabelle J. [2] ; Baehr, Johanna [3] ; Bryden, Harry L. [4] ; Chidichimo, Maria Paz [5, 6, 7] ; Cunningham, Stuart A. [8] ; Danabasoglu, Gokhan [9] ; Dong, Shenfu [10] ; Donohue, Kathleen A. [11] ; Elipot, Shane [12] ; Heimbach, Patrick [13] ; Holliday, N. Penny [1] ; Hummels, Rebecca [14] ; Jackson, Laura C. [15] ; Karstensen, Johannes [14] ; Lankhorst, Matthias [16] ; Le Bras, Isabela A. [16] ; Lozier, M. Susan [17] ; McDonagh, Elaine L. [1] ; Meinen, Christopher S. [10] ; Mercier, Herle [18] ; Moat, I, Bengamin ; Perez, Renellys C. [10] ; Piecuch, Christopher G. [19] ; Rhein, Monika [20] ; Srokosz, Meric A. [21] ; Trenberth, Kevin E. [9] ; Bacon, Sheldon [21] ; Forget, Gael [22] ; Goni, Gustavo [10] ; Kieke, Dagmar [20] ; Koelling, Jannes [16] ; Lamont, Tarron [2, 23] ; McCarthy, Gerard D. [24] ; Mertens, Christian [20] ; Send, Uwe [16] ; Smeed, David A. [21] ; Speich, Sabrina [25] ; van den Berg, Marcel [23] ; Volkov, Denis [10] ; Wilson, Chris [26]
Total Authors: 41
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[1] Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants - England
[2] Univ Cape Town, Dept Oceanog, Cape Town - South Africa
[3] Univ Hamburg, Inst Oceanog, CEN, Hamburg - Germany
[4] Univ Southampton, Southampton, Hants - England
[5] Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[6] Serv Hidrog Naval, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[7] UMI IFAECI CNRS, Buenos Aires, DF - Argentina
[8] Scottish Assoc Marine Sci, Oban, Argyll - Scotland
[9] Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, POB 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 - USA
[10] Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL - USA
[11] Univ Rhode Isl, Narragansett, RI - USA
[12] Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Coral Gables, FL 33124 - USA
[13] Univ Texas Austin, Jackson Sch Geosci, Oden Inst Computat Engn & Sci, Austin, TX 78712 - USA
[14] GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Kiel - Germany
[15] Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon - England
[16] Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA 92093 - USA
[17] Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Durham, NC 27708 - USA
[18] CNRS, Lab Oceanog Phys & Spatiale, Plouzane - France
[19] Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 - USA
[20] Bremen Univ, Ctr Marine Environm Sci MARUM, Inst Environm Phys IUP, Bremen - Germany
[21] Moat, Bengamin, I, Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants - England
[22] MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 - USA
[23] Dept Environm Affairs, Cape Town - South Africa
[24] Maynooth Univ, Dept Geog, ICARUS, Maynooth, Kildare - Ireland
[25] CNRS, Lab Meteorol Dynam, UMR Ecole Polytech 8539, ENS, Paris - France
[26] Natl Oceanog Ctr, Liverpool, Merseyside - England
Total Affiliations: 26
Document type: Review article
Web of Science Citations: 6

The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) extends from the Southern Ocean to the northern North Atlantic, transporting heat northwards throughout the South and North Atlantic, and sinking carbon and nutrients into the deep ocean. Climate models indicate that changes to the AMOC both herald and drive climate shifts. Intensive trans-basin AMOC observational systems have been put in place to continuously monitor meridional volume transport variability, and in some cases, heat, freshwater and carbon transport. These observational programs have been used to diagnose the magnitude and origins of transport variability, and to investigate impacts of variability on essential climate variables such as sea surface temperature, ocean heat content and coastal sea level. AMOC observing approaches vary between the different systems, ranging from trans-basin arrays (OSNAP, RAPID 26 degrees N, 11 degrees S, SAMBA 34.5 degrees S) to arrays concentrating on western boundaries (e.g., RAPID WAVE, MOVE 16 degrees N). In this paper, we outline the different approaches (aims, strengths and limitations) and summarize the key results to date. We also discuss alternate approaches for capturing AMOC variability including direct estimates (e.g., using sea level, bottom pressure, and hydrography from autonomous profiling floats), indirect estimates applying budgetary approaches, state estimates or ocean reanalyses, and proxies. Based on the existing observations and their results, and the potential of new observational and formal synthesis approaches, we make suggestions as to how to evaluate a comprehensive, future-proof observational network of the AMOC to deepen our understanding of the AMOC and its role in global climate. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/50552-4 - Impact of the Southern Atlantic on the global overturning circulation (MOC) and climate (SAMOC)
Grantee:Edmo José Dias Campos
Support type: Research Program on Global Climate Change - Thematic Grants
FAPESP's process: 17/09659-6 - Interannual variability of the meridional transports across the SAMOC basin-wide array (SAMBAR)
Grantee:Edmo José Dias Campos
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants