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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

Phylogenetic Systematics of Dart-Poison Frogs and their Relatives Revisited (Anura: Dendrobatoidea)

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Grant, Taran [1, 2] ; Rada, Marco [1] ; Anganoy-Criollo, Marvin [1] ; Batista, Abel [3, 4] ; Dias, Pedro Henrique [1] ; Jeckel, Adriana Moriguchi [1] ; Machado, Denis Jacob [1] ; Rueda-Almonacid, Jose Vicente [5]
Total Authors: 8
[1] Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biosci, Dept Zool, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[2] Univ Sao Paulo, Museum Zool, Amphibian Collect, BR-04263000 Sao Paulo, SP - Brazil
[3] Univ Autonoma Chiriqui, David - Panama
[4] Los Nat, David 042601459, Chiriqui - Panama
[5] Corp Colombia Hechos, Bogota - Colombia
Total Affiliations: 5
Document type: Journal article
Source: South American Journal of Herpetology; v. 12, n. 1, p. S1-S90, SEP 2017.
Web of Science Citations: 39

Despite the impressive growth of knowledge on the phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Dendrobatoidea) over the past decade, many problems remain to be addressed We analyzed up to 189 phenomic characters (morphology, behavior, defensive chemicals) and 15 mitochondrial and nuclear loci scored for 564 dendrobatoid and outgroup terminals, including 76 newly sequenced terminals and > 20 previously unanalyzed species, using tree-alignment and the parsimony optimality criterion in the program POY v. 5. 1.1 and additional analyses of the implied alignment using TNT v. 1. 5. Even though data coverage was highly heterogeneous, the strict consensus of 639 optimal trees is highly resolved and we detected only one instance of wildcard behavior involving a small clade of outgroup species The monophyly of the median lingual process (MLP) possessing genus Anomaloglossus is decisively refuted, with the cis-Andean species being sister to Rheobates within Aromobatidae and the trans-Andean species nested within Hyloxalinae, implying two independent origins of the structure in Dendrobatoidea. Although this result was unexpected, it is not surprising given that the MLP evolved at least five times in Asian and African ranoids, including Arthroleptidae, Dicroglossidae, Mantellidae, and Rhacophoridae and either once in the most recent common ancestor of the massive clade Victoranura followed by independent losses or multiple times within component lineages. We restrict Anomaloglossus to the cis-Andean MLP-possessing species, describe a new genus for the trans-Andean MLP-possessing species, and resurrect Paruwrobates for its sister group, which includes Dendrobates andinus (formerly Ameerega), D. erythromos (formerly Hyloxalus and, until recently, Ameerega), and Prostherapis whymperi (formerly Hyloxalus). We also transfer Dendrobates maculatus from Ameerega to Epipedobates, making Ameerega an exclusively cis-Andean group We describe two new species of the trans-Andean MLP-possessmg genus-one from Cerro Tacarcuna, near the Colombo-Panamanian border, and the other from 800-900 m elevation on the western versant of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental (Cauca Department-bringing the total number of species in the genus to seven The discrete, round, white to yellowish-brown dots found on the venter of the new species from Cerro Tacarcuna and at least one other trans-Andean MLP-possessmg species are formed by large, ellipsoid, densely distributed (up to 80 glands/mm(2)) granular glands Although specimens of the new species from Cerro Tacarcuna exuded a noxious milky substance when handled, lipophilic alkaloids were not detected In addition to the unexpected placement of the trans-Andean MLP-possessmg species, major findings include the unexpected placement of Colostethus ruthvem and its undescribed sister species (the ``C.{''} ruthveni group) within Dendrobatmae as sister of the newly recognized tribe Dendrobatini (all dendrobatines except Phyllobates and the ``C.{''} ruthveni group) We describe a new genus for C. argyrogaster and C. fugax to remedy the paraphyly of Colostethus caused by the placement of those species as sister to Ameerega Our evidence rejects the sister group relationship of Dendrobates + Oophaga in favor of Dendrobates + Adelphobates, which is consistent with their uniquely low diploid chromosome number of 2n = 18 (2n = 20 in Oophaga). With the exception of Anomaloglossus and Colostethus, all other genera are monophyletic We recognize several monophyletic species groups-including the Atlantic Forest, trans-Andean, and 22-chromosome groups within Allobates, the An stepheni, An megacephalus, and An beebei groups in Anomaloglossus, the C. latinasus (formed by the C. inguinalis and C. latinasus clades) and C. fraterdameli groups within Colostethus, and the Am braccata and Am rubriventris groups within Ameerega-identify unambiguously optimized phenomic synapomorphies, and summarize patterns in the evolution of the diploid chromosome number, swelling of Finger IV in males, relative length of Fingers II and III, length of Finger V, and testicular and intestinal pigmentation Finally, we address criticisms of the current taxonomy of Neotropical poison frogs and their relatives, concluding that they are either overstated, misguided, or false, and that the current system of names better communicates knowledge of the diversity of these frogs Our results highlight the importance of increased taxon sampling, and we conclude by identifying key species to include in future phylogenetic analyses. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/10000-5 - A multi-disciplinary approach to the study of amphibian diversification
Grantee:Taran Grant
Support type: Research Grants - Young Investigators Grants
FAPESP's process: 08/50928-1 - Speciation of frogs in high-altitude environments
Grantee:Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad
Support type: Research Projects - Thematic Grants
FAPESP's process: 15/11239-0 - Morphological diversity in tadpoles of poison frogs (Dedrobatoidea: Dendrobatidae and Aromobatidae)
Grantee:Pedro Henrique dos Santos Dias
Support type: Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 13/20420-4 - Evolution of larval characters in Dendrobatoidea Cope, 1865 (Amphibia; Anura; Dendrobatidae & Aromobatidae)
Grantee:Pedro Henrique dos Santos Dias
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 16/09999-9 - Sequestration efficiency, metabolism and excretion of alkaloids in poison frogs and their non-sequestering relatives
Grantee:Adriana Moriguchi Jeckel
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 13/05958-8 - Comparative Genomics and the Evolution of Amphibian Chemical Defense
Grantee:Denis Jacob Machado
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 15/18654-2 - Whole-genome sequence of the eastern spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus holbrookii (Amphibia: Anura: Scaphiopodidade) and of the Maldonado redbelly toad, Melanophryniscus moreirae (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae)
Grantee:Denis Jacob Machado
Support type: Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate