Advanced search
Start date

Allelopathic potential of Cosmos sulphureus Cav.

Full text
Bruna Pires da Silva
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Jaboticabal. 2017-06-08.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias. Jaboticabal
Defense date:
Advisor: Pedro Luís da Costa Aguiar Alves; Rosa María Varela Montoya; Mariluce Pascoina Nepomuceno

Cosmos sulphurous Cav. was introduced in Brazil as an ornamental plant and has become a problematic weed. This plant grows rapidly and it’s a dominant species, probably due to its allelopathic activity, suppressing the growth of other weeds. This characteristic makes C. sulphureus a potential source of natural herbicides (allelochemicals). When isolated and characterized they can be directly used as such or used to synthesize new related compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the allelopathic potential of C. sulphureus and to extract, fractionate and isolate the allelochemical promoters of the allelopathic effect. The allelopathic potential of C. sulphureus was characterized by the decomposition release method and by root exudation (“in vivo” plant). The decomposition of C. sulphureus resulted in allelopathic inhibitory effect on Lactuca sativa, Amaranthus viridis and Panicum maximum, mainly in the incorporation of the greater amount of plant material. Root extracts of C. sulphureus resulted in allelopathic inhibitory effect on A. viridis and P. maximum. Based on the results of this work, the main release pathway presented by C. sulphureus is root exudation ("in vivo" plant). Extraction of C. sulphureus leaves with water and organic solvents was also performed and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was checked. The most active extracts were fractionated using appropriate chromatography techniques and the fractions were tested by means of bioassays (biodirigid isolation). Bioactive fractions were analyzed in order to identify substances through HPLC-UV-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Dichloromethane extract of leaves and acetone extract of roots showed significant inhibition in wheat coleoptile elongation, and the first one was more phytotoxic to the target species (Allium cepa, L. sativa, Lepidium sativum, Lycopersicum esculentum, A. viridis, Echinochloa crus-galli, P. maximum and Urochloa decumbens). Fifteen compounds were isolated from leaves and five from roots. All compounds isolated from roots, except stigmasterol, are phenylpropanoids and were first isolated in C. sulphureus. The compounds 1’,2’-Epoxy-3’,4-di-Oisobutyryl-Z-coniferyl alcohol and 1',2'-Dihydroxy-3',4-di-O-isobutyrylconiferyl alcohol, isolated from roots, have never been described in the literature before. The major compounds isolated from leaves are sesquiterpene lactones: costunolide, reynosin and santamarin. The three major components of leaves are described for the first time to C. sulphureus, except costunolide, which was isolated from this plant before. Santamarin and costunolide were the most active compounds followed by reynosin. Amaranthus viridis and P. maximum were the most sensitive species to the action of the lactones. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from leaves are a potential source for new herbicide structural models. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/27140-7 - Assessment of allelopathic potential of Bidens sulphurea
Grantee:Bruna Pires da Silva
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate