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(Reference retrieved automatically from Web of Science through information on FAPESP grant and its corresponding number as mentioned in the publication by the authors.)

The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura)

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Pereyra, Martin O. ; Womack, Molly C. ; Sebastian Barrionuevo, J. ; Blotto, Boris L. ; Baldo, Diego ; Targino, Mariane ; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo ; Guayasamin, Juan M. ; Coloma, Luis A. ; Hoke, Kim L. ; Grant, Taran ; Faivovich, Julian
Total Authors: 12
Document type: Journal article
Source: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS; v. 6, SEP 28 2016.
Web of Science Citations: 12

Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/10000-5 - A multi-disciplinary approach to the study of amphibian diversification
Grantee:Taran Grant
Support type: Research Grants - Young Investigators Grants
FAPESP's process: 13/20423-3 - Relationships among major clades of Hyloidea (Anura: Neobatrachia): one of the main unresolved problems of the phylogeny of Anura
Grantee:Boris Leonardo Blotto Acuña
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 13/50741-7 - Diversity and conservation of Brazilian amphibians
Grantee:Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad
Support type: BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Thematic Grants
FAPESP's process: 12/09401-5 - Phylogenetic relationships of Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870, a megadiverse genus of frogs (Anura, Terrarana, Craugastoridae)
Grantee:Mariane Targino Rocha
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
FAPESP's process: 14/03585-2 - Phylogenetic analysis of direct-developing frogs (Anura, Terrarana, Craugastoridae)
Grantee:Jhon Jairo Ospina Sarria
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate