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Nitrate in the ruminant nutrition as a strategy for mitigation of enteric methane

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Andressa Santanna Natel
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/STB)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Adibe Luiz Abdalla; Alexandre Berndt; Ives Cláudio da Silva Bueno; Ciniro Costa; Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro
Advisor: Adibe Luiz Abdalla

Production of enteric methane is among the leading sources of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural activities and generate energy loss to the animal up to 12% of gross energy consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium nitrate encapsulated in ruminant feed as a nutritional strategy for mitigation of enteric methane. The experiment consisted of two phases. Phase I: tested diets were supplemented with encapsulated calcium nitrate using a semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique Half gram of substrate with 50 mL of incubation medium, and 25 mL of rumen fluid were incubated in glass bottles (160 ml) at 39 °C for 24 hours to determine the best diets to be tested in vivo. The first trial tested the association between monensin (diets with and without monensin) and encapsulated nitrate levels (0, 1.5 and 3% of dry matter (DM)) for in vitro methane mitigation. There was no interaction between monensin and nitrate for the tested variables. The second in vitro assay tested the interaction of diet type with two concentrate:forage ratios, 20:80 and 80:20, and the inclusion of encapsulated nitrate levels (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5% DM). Although it was not observed associative effect between diet and nitrate for reduction of methane, it was observed change in the ruminal fermentation products. Phase II: According to the results obtained in Phase I, in the second phase we evaluated the associative effect of concentrate: forage ratio of diet and the dose of nitrate on the methane emission, ruminal constituents and nitrate toxicity in vivo. We used six lambs cannulated in the rumen, distributed in Latin square design 6 x 6 in factorial 2 x 3. The factors were type of diet (concentrate:forage ratios 20:80 and 80:20) and inclusion of encapsulated nitrate doses in the diet (0, 1.5 and 3% DM) in the gradual replacement of soybean meal, a total of six treatments. The replacement levels of soybean meal by nitrate were in protein equivalent so as to leave the diets isonitrogenous. The animals were gradually adapted to dietary nitrate supply to avoid problems with toxicity. The analysis of toxicity were evaluated by the rate of methemoglobin in the blood of sheep 3 hours after feeding. Methemoglobin levels in blood of animals were not changed by the addition of nitrate. Associative effect was observed between the type of diet and nitrate for ruminal fermentation products such as acetate, which decreased linearly in the diets with 80% forage when nitrate was added. It can be concluded that nitrate used securely is a promising strategy for reducing enteric methane independently of the type of diet being supplemented (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/02592-0 - Nitrate in the ruminant nutrition as a strategy for mitigation of enteric methane
Grantee:Andressa Santanna Natel
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate