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Study of the effect of cholesterol as a modulator of the alkaline phosphatase systems mimetics incorporated into the matrix vesicles activity.

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Author(s):
Bruno Zoccaratto Favarin
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Pietro Ciancaglini; Rosa dos Prazeres Melo Furriel; Eneida de Paula
Advisor: Pietro Ciancaglini
Abstract

Osteoblasts are responsible for initiating the bone biomineralization process mediated by the release of matrix vesicles (MVs). The MVs arise by budding from the membrane of the osteoblasts and are secreted into the matrix. The MVs membrane has high levels of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), among other enzymes/proteins, as well as cholesterol, compared with the plasma membrane. The objective of this study was to build proteoliposomes constituted by Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), with cholesterol (Chol) in different molar ratios for the kinetic characterization of TNAP, using the substrates ATP, ADP and PPi, in order to obtain systems that mimic the MVs. The increase in the cholesterol concentration hampered the incorporation of TNAP into the DPPC systems, but favored its incorporation into the DOPC liposomes. The presence of cholesterol in all prepared mimetic systems affected the kinetic parameters of hydrolysis for all substrates studied. Regardless of the presence of cholesterol, PPi hydrolysis always showed greater catalytic efficiency (kcat/K0.5), suggesting a preferential hydrolysis of this substrate. Treatment with 2 mM cyclodextrin (BMCD) resulted in removal of 70% of the cholesterol from the proteoliposome constituted of DPPC:Cholesterol 36% (molar ratio). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed that BMCD was bound to the vesicular systems interfering with the other assays. When 36% of cholestenone (Achol), an analogue of cholesterol, was employed in the construction of DPPC proteoliposomes, a different kinetic behavior was observed for TNAP. The Vmax for ATP hydrolysis was lower compared with the systems constituted of DPPC:Chol 36% and higher than that obtained for the DOPC:Chol 36% system. The values of K0.5 were lower for DPPC:Achol 36% compared to the similar systems. With respect to the hydrolysis of PPi, the kinetic parameters were similar for the systems constituted of DPPC:Chol and DOPC:Chol. Finally, we evaluated the ability of the vesicular systems containing DPPC, DPPC:Chol and DPPC:Achol (with and without TNAP incorporated) to propagate mineralization nodules, using ATP as substrate. The mineralization was about 16 times more efficient in the presence of proteoliposomes containing Chol or Achol than for the system constituted of DPPC only (about 4 times more efficient) compared with the corresponding liposome (in the absence of enzyme). Given the differences observed for both the kinetic behavior and the mineralization ability of the different systems, we suggest that the lipid microenvironment plays an important role in MVs function. A possible explanation for these differences is that thermodynamic factors such as the decrease in the enthalpy of transition and the loss of pre-transition, as well as the presence of surface charges, the presence of different substrates, and the orientation of hydrogen bonds with the water molecule on the surface of the proteoliposomes, may cause conformational changes in TNAP molecule. These relevant results can contribute for the understanding of the role of lipids and their interactions with proteins present in MVs in the biomineralization process. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/01912-0 - Alkaline phosphatase reconstituted in liposomes: study of the effect of the lipid microenvironment on the pyrophosphatase and ATPase activity of the enzyme
Grantee:Bruno Zoccaratto Favarin
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master