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Carvedilol-lercanidine interaction: stereoselectivity and influence of chronic kidney disease in hypertensive patients

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Author(s):
Estela Hanauer Schaab
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Vera Lucia Lanchote; Eduardo Barbosa Coelho; Marcio Dantas; Jose Salvador Lepera; Vanessa Bergamin Boralli Marques
Advisor: Vera Lucia Lanchote
Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with inhibition of enzyme systems and drug transporters. Carvedilol, a nonselective ?-blocker, is a substrate and inhibitor of intestinal Pgp. Lercanidipine, a calcium channel antagonist, is metabolized by CYP3A4, which is described as a probable inhibitor of P-gp. The present study evaluates the carvedilollercanidipine interaction in hypertensive patients, with or without CKD. We investigated 8 hypertensive patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 and 8 hypertensive patients with normal renal function, phenotyped for CYP2D6 and CYP3A, and genotyped for CYP2C9 and P-gp. Patients received a single oral dose of 25 mg of racemic carvedilol (Phase 1), or 20 mg of racemic lercanidipine (Phase 2), or a single oral dose of 25 mg of racemic carvedilol associated with 20 mg of racemic lercanidipine (Phase 3). Serial blood samples were collected up to 32h. Heart rate was assessed in the situation of isometric exercise for 2 min with handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contractility, in each blood collection time. Plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of carvedilol and lercanidipine were performed by LCMS/ MS. The pharmacokinetics of carvedilol, alone or in combination with lercanidipine in the CKD group, is enantioselective with plasma accumulation of the enantiomer (+)-(R)- carvedilol. The administration of a single oral dose of 20 mg of racemic lercanidipine reduced the total apparent clearance and increased the AUC for the enantiomer (+)-(R)-carvedilol on CKD group. The CONTROL group also presented plasma accumulation of the enantiomer (+)-(R)-carvedilol. However, the administration of single oral dose of 20 mg of racemic lercanidipine does not alter the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of carvedilol in CONTROL group. The comparison between the CONTROL group with the CKD group, in monotherapy or in combination with lercanidipine, shows that CKD does not alter the pharmacokinetics of both enantiomers of carvedilol. The PK-PD modeling shows no statistically significant differences between Phases 1 and 3 in any group. However, comparing the CKD group with the CONTROL group, higher values of ECe50 were observed in the patients of CKD group in Phase 3. The administration of a single oral dose of 20 mg of racemic lercanidipine, in monotherapy or in combination with carvedilol to the CONTROL and CKD group does not show enantioselectivity in the parameter AUC. Administration of a single oral dose of 25 mg of racemic carvedilol reduced the total apparent clearance and increased de AUC for the enantiomer (S)-lercanidipine on CKD group, but not in CONTROL group. The comparison between the CKD group with the CONTROL group does not show statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of both enantiomers of lercanidipine in Phases 2 and 3. In conclusion, carvedilol reduced the apparent total clearance of the eutomer (S)-lercanidipine and lercanidipine reduced the apparent total clearance of the enantiomer (+)-(R)-carvedilol in the patients of CKD group, but not in the patients of CONTROL group. The findings suggest enantioselectivity in the activity of P-gp, and that CKD stages 3 and 4 does not alter the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol and lercanidipine in hypertensive patients phenotyped as extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 and with normal CYP3A activity. However, the highest values of ECe50 in patients of CKD group in the Phase 3 suggest a lower potency of (-)-(S)-carvedilol in the inhibition of sympathetic activity in these patients. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 08/04840-5 - Lercanidipine-carvedilol interaction: stereoselectivity and influence of chronic renal failure in hypertensive patients
Grantee:Estela Hanauer Schaab
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate