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Functional and Structural Characterization of an Acidic Toxic Phospholipase A2 from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom.

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Author(s):
Norival Alves Santos Filho
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Andreimar Martins Soares; Fábio de Oliveira; Sergio Akira Uyemura
Advisor: Andreimar Martins Soares
Abstract

Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s, EC 3.1.1.4) belong to a superfamily of enzymes that perform the cleavage of phospholipids of cell membranes in fatty acids and lysophospholipids in a calcium dependent reaction. PLA2s have an important role in several cellular functions, including maintenance of cellular phospholipids, the generation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, translation signals, cell proliferation and muscle contraction. This study aimed at the structural and functional characterization of an acidic and toxic phospholipase A¬2 (BmooTX-I) isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. BmooTX-I was purified by a combination of chromatographic steps on resins of ion exchange (DEAE Sephacel), molecular exclusion (Sephadex G-75) and hydrophobic interaction (Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B). The confirmation of the purity degree was analyzed by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry of reduced BmooTX-I (monomer, 13,802.66 Da) and not reduced (dimer, 27,506.38 Da), by isoelectric focusing (pI 4.2) and by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal region of the enzyme showed high homology with other Asp49 PLA2s of snake venoms. BmooTX-I also presented high phospholipase activity and induced moderate edema in vivo. Furthermore, this enzyme was capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation, inducing the release of PGI2 by HUVECs, also showing cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, bacteria and fungi. Treatment of the enzyme with the p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) neutralized the enzymatic activity and the inhibition of platelet aggregation. The determination of myotoxicity was accomplished through the determination of the CK levels in plasma of mice previously injected with the toxin. The histopathological analysis of muscle fibers showed the presence of inflammatory infiltration and intercellular fluid, both confirmed by ultrastructural analysis. This work contributes to the elucidation and determination of the biochemical composition of animal venoms, since the mechanisms of action of toxic acidic phospholipases A2 are not yet fully understood. (AU)