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Investigation of the defense against oxidants derived from the peroxisome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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Author(s):
Aline Françoise de Camargo Reydon
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Biociências (IBIOC/SB)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Luis Eduardo Soares Netto; Gisele Monteiro de Souza
Advisor: Luis Eduardo Soares Netto
Abstract

Defects in peroxisomes are associated with several complex diseases. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids takes place in these organelles, with the concomitant generation of hydrogen peroxide. Generally, it is assumed that peroxisomal catalase is the enzyme responsible for degradation of hydrogen peroxide, but in several organisms, deletion of its gene results in no clear phenotype. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, catalase A- null (Δcta1) mutant strains exhibit very similar viability levels when compared with the corresponding wild-type strain. We hypothesized here that Cys-based peroxidases compensate the absence of catalase A, contributing to the detoxification of peroxides derived from the peroxisome. Indeed, null mutante strains for the peroxiredoxins Ahp1 and Tsa1 displayed increased sensitivity for tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) in comparison to the wild type strain. Furthermore, a mutant strain whose five genes for peroxiredoxins were interrupted (prxΔ) was even more sensitive to tBHP. In regards to hydrogen peroxide insult, the prxΔ strain was more susceptible to oxidative stress than the single mutant and wild-type strains, despite the activity of catalases. These data are in agreement with previous results from our group demonstrating increased expression of genes encoding the three peroxiredoxin enzymes: Ahp1, Prx1 and Tsa2 in Δcta1 cells at high peroxisomal activity (media containing oleate). Indeed, a yeast strain deleted of all five peroxiredoxin genes is more sensitive to peroxides than the corresponding wild type cells. These results indicated that catalase and peroxiredoxins cooperate to protect yeast in conditions of high fatty acid intake. There are evidences of an organellar location of Ahp1 (possible peroxisomal or mitochondrial), suggesting it could be a relevant component of antioxidant defense relative to the insult derived from the peroxisome. Nonetheless, the ahp1-null strain (Δahp1), which is usually sensitive to organic peroxide, displayed a gain of resistance in the absence of catalase activity (in the presence of ATZ and in the double-mutant strain Δcta1/ahp1), indicating the existance of a compensatory antioxidant pathway induced in the absence of catalase A. The double-mutant strains Δcta1/ahp1, Δcta1/tsa1, Δcta1/tsa2, Δcta1/prx1 and Δcta1/dot5 were developed in order to elucidate the identity of the enzymes that cooperate to protect yeast against oxidative insult derived from the peroxisome. To this end, comparative viability assays in conditions of high peroxisomal activity were realised, as well as assays in comparative total protein carbonyl levels. Among the double-mutant strains, Δcta1/tsa2 displayed higher sensibility to peroxide and higher levels of oxidative damage, suggesting that the peroxiredoxin Tsa2 may be an important component in the antioxidant pathway that compensates the lack of catalase A. In addition, a quintuple mutant strain, lacking all peroxiredoxins, and a mutant strain lacking all eight Cys-based, thiol peroxidases were used in these assays. The comparison of these strains with the wild-type, single-mutant and double-mutant strains demonstrated the importance of peroxiredoxins in the cellular antioxidant defence and that thiol-peroxidases are vital in conditions of oxidative stress. The expression of the TSA2 was induced in the absence of catalase A in cells grown in oleate and with no exogenous oxidants. The results suggest the existence of an efficient pathway of antioxidant defense, involving thiol-peroxidases, which compensates the absence of catalase A in the cell and protects yeast against oxidative stress induced by both hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxide. The peroxiredoxin Tsa2 may be involved in the antioxidant pathway that compensates the absence of peroxisomal catalase through an unknown mechanism. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 09/06531-2 - Investigation of antioxidant defense against oxidants derived from the peroxisome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Grantee:Aline Francoise de Camargo Reydon
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master