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Soil quality bioindicators of an environmental restoration gradient

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Author(s):
Rafael Leandro de Figueiredo Vasconcellos
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALA/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso; George Gardner Brown; Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira Camargo; José Leonardo de Moraes Gonçalves; Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues
Advisor: Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso
Abstract

Environmental impactation can affect microbial biomass, nutrient cycling, processes, physical-chemical characteristics and also the diversity of microbes and edaphic fauna. The aim of this study was to understand the different interactions between these attributes and to identify the indicators of soil quality involved in the recovery process. Three areas with different stages of recovery [5 (R05), 10 (R10) and 20 (R20) years] were compared with a native semideciduous forest (NT) in order to study the behavior of microbes, macrofauna and their interactions with the physical and chemical attributes. Samples were collected at 15 points in each area. Greater activity of urease, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase were found in the native area. The same result was found for basal respiration, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN). The structure of Bacteria analyzed by T-RFLP discriminated the native and R20 from R05 and R10, only in the summer. Soil bulk density, humidity and microporosity negatively affected soil microbiological indicators and together with total soil carbon they were the main discriminant factors. A. colossica, A. lacunosa, G. decipiens and Gigaspora sp. were more abundant in NT and the species G. viscosum, A. mellea, A. scrobiculata and S. heterogama in R05 and G. rosea in R10 and R20. Porosity, soil bulk density, humidity, acid phosphatase activity, MBC, MBN and N-NO3 - were the principal environmental variables related to AMF species distribution. Seasonal influences on AMF species were also observed. Higher glomalin related soil protein (GRSP) content was found only in the winter and NT had only EE-GRSP (easly extracted glomalin related soil protein) different from the recovery areas. Correlations among glomalin and physical-chemical and microbiological attributes were observed. Edaphic fauna groups were influenced by seasonality and by sampling methodology (pitfall traps and monoliths). Shannons, Simpsons and the evenness index were significant only in the dry season and in the oldest areas. Richness was higher when the monolith method was used. Diplopoda was the principal group that discriminated the recovery gradient for both seasons and methodologies. Porosity, soil bulk density, humidity, total nitrogen, urease and dehydrogenase were important factors to separate faunal groups. This work showed that biological and physico-chemical soil quality attributes interact and changed according to gradient recovery and seasonality. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 09/14954-0 - BIOINDICATORS OF SOIL QUALITY IN A FOREST RESTORATION GRADIENT
Grantee:Rafael Leandro de Figueiredo Vasconcellos
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate