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Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia responses due to associations between fertilization and defoliation intensity

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Author(s):
Pedro Castro de Almeida
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALA/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Moacyr Corsi; Patrícia Perondi Anchão Oliveira; Patricia Menezes Santos
Advisor: Moacyr Corsi
Abstract

In pasture based production systems, grazing management has great influence over productivity, responses to fertilization and pasture longevity. There may be differences between best ways of managing the grazing process in tropical grasses under different fertility conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of defoliation severity associated with defoliation frequency based in light interception (95%) over Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia grasslands under hi and low fertilization. The experiment was conducted at São Paulo State University, Piracicaba SP Brazil. Treatments were factorial combinations of 2 fertility conditions, fertilized (F) and unfertilized (UF) grasslands and 3 defoliation intensities (20cm, 30cm and 50cm post grazing heights). Fertilized treatments received 572 kg N.ha-1, 472 kg K2O.ha-1 e 230 kg P2O5.ha-1, and unfertilized didnt receive any kind of fertilization. Beef cattle steers were used as defoliation agents. Treatments were distributed among the 30 experimental units (400 m² paddocks) according to a complete and randomized block design, with 6 treatments (F20, F30, F50, NF20, NF30 and NF50) and 5 replications. The evaluation period was from July, 2010 to March 2011. Unfertilized treatments with the lower post grazing heights (20cm and 30cm) could not reach 95% of light interception due to it leaves morphology (upright) and small tiller population. Grazing intervals were the same among fertilized treatments in the summer (17 days). Pasture height in the moment that it achieved 95% of light interception were higher for the unfertilized grasslands, and for the higher post grazing treatments. Smaller post grazing heights were related with greater leaf and less dead material proportion in the pre grazing forage mass. There was no effect of the residual heights over the leaf proportion in the post grazing mass considering the fertilized pastures. Lower defoliation intensities were related with bigger proportions of forage losses due to grazing process. Fertilized treatments produced 19514 kg of DM.ha-1 while the unfertilized treatments produced 8897 kg of DM.ha-1 in 198 days, and there was no influence of residual heights over this characteristic. Tiller densities were affected only by fertilization and not by the grazing intensity. However, the grazing intensity had effect in to the weed appearance. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 08/03348-0 - Responses of Panicum maximmum cv. Tanzânia to fertilization rates and cutting heights associations.
Grantee:Pedro Castro de Almeida
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master