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Evaluation of effectiveness and security of the tramadol for the analgesia in dogs with oncologic pain

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Author(s):
Patrícia Bonifacio Flor
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FMVZ/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Denise Tabacchi Fantoni; Hazem Adel Ashmawi; Silvia Renata Gaido Cortopassi
Advisor: Denise Tabacchi Fantoni
Abstract

Cancer is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in companion aged dogs, being pain the principal symptom described in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the use of tramadol for analgesia in dogs with oncologic pain. Between august 2004 and marc 2006, dogs with cancer referred to the Pain Group of the Anesthesia Service were evaluated. In this study , dogs with at least fifteen days of treatment were included and that at the moment at tramadol administration, presented pain equal or above 4 according the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) when treated with dypirona associated our not to non-esteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics or steroidal for more than 10 days. Pain evaluated with the VAS and the quality of life (QV) score validated for dogs (Yazbek; Fantoni, 2000) were used. One hundred and thirty seven dogs with cancer were evaluated, but only 37 could be included the evaluation of analgesic therapy. According to the owner of the animals by means of the VAS at the begging of tramadol was 6,11 ± 1,81 and the QV score was 21,95 ± 5,96. At the first return, an improvement in pain was verified in 31 animals (83,78%). In this moment, adequacy of tramadol dose was performed, since the intensity of pain was above 4 in 20 (54,05%) animals. At the second returns 34 (91,89%) of the animals presented pain relief in relation to the first visit, being that 28 (75,68%) of the animal presented a VAS bellow 4 the initial dose o tramadol was 2mg/Kg each 8 hours orally, and the dose was readjusted in the return who the animal presented VAS above 4. Efficacy of treatment was classified in the three steps pain relief: successful pain relief (initial VAS > final VAS and final VAS < 4), unsuccessful pain relief (initial VAS > final VAS and final VAS > 4) and no pain relief (initial VAS &le; final VAS). It could be inferred that at the first return 83,78% and 78,28% of patients regarding owner and researcher opinion respectively obtained some pain relief. Following this some classification, it was observed that at the second return after adjusting the tramadol dosage, pain relieve was achieved in 28 (75,68%) of the animals the according to the owner and researcher and that an unsuccessful relief in 6 (16,21%) and 7 (18,91%) of patients respectively. When the groups were compared separately it was verified that the group DAINET (dypirona, AINE and tramadol) showed a significant pain relief in relation to the final evaluation, whereas the other two groups (DT - dypirona plus tramadol - and DET - dypirona, steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic and tramadol) presented pain relief only in relation to the final evaluation. Based on the results of pain relief and QV it could be concluded that tramadol was efficient regarding the treatment of moderate to severe pain in dogs with cancer. (AU)