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Comparative study of cost of manufacturing and functional properties of volatile oils obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation

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Patricia Franco Leal
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Campinas, SP.
Institution: Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Maria Angela de Almeida Meireles Petenate; Eduardo Augusto Caldas Batista; Fernando Antonio Cabral; Julian Martínez; Miriam Dupas Hubinger; Silvania Regina Mendes Moreschi
Advisor: Maria Angela de Almeida Meireles Petenate

This study had the objective to compare the cost of manufacturing (COM) of vegetable extracts and volatile oils of aromatic, condimental and medicinal plants, natives or adaptable to cultivation in Brazil, obtained by extraction processes that are clean and harmless to the environment. A technical-economical study on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD) for obtaining of vegetable extracts and volatile oils was done. The methodology to estimate the cost of manufacturing used on this study produces estimation classified as COM class 4 or 5, being a preliminary estimation used in the decision of go or not go of the project. The cost of manufacturing estimations were done using information from the overall extraction curves (OEC) experimentally determined in this study (rosemary + steam, chamomile + steam, anise + steam, C. verbenacea + steam, C. verbenacea + CO2, C. zehntneri + CO2) and information obtained from literature for OECs (rosemary + steam, rosemary + CO2, anise + steam, anise + CO2, ginger + CO2, chamomile + CO2, black pepper + steam, black pepper + CO2, fennel + CO2). The overall extraction curves were fitted to a spline containing two or three lines: the first line describes the mass transfer rate for the constant extraction rate period (CER), the second line describes the falling extraction rate period (FER), and the third line describes the diffusion controlled rate period (DC). The scale-up procedure assumed that both the global yield and the time of processing of the industrial scale are linearly correlated to laboratory scale ones as long as the ratio of the solvent mass to the raw material mass is kept constant. The COMs of the extracts obtained by SD and SFE were estimated from beginning to end of the process at specified time intervals along the OECs. For the SFE process the COM was also estimated for two preselected times of process: (i) a time of cycle corresponding to CER period and denoted as tCER, and (ii) a time of cycle corresponding to the intercept of the CER and DC lines denoted in this study as tCER2. The tCER parameter is widespread in literature as being a good estimative for the time of processing for the SFE since approximately 70% of extraction bed is exhausted along this period. For the OECs adjusted to a linear spline containing three lines the time of cycle was chosen as tCER2. The simulation of the separation extract/solvent done for fennel + CO2 and C. zehntneri + CO2 system, showed that the operation conditions of this stage have great influence on the final composition of the extract. The operation pressure of 40 bar in the flash tank was considered as a good choice, since a minimum loss of CO2 (in the extract exit stream) and the extract loss (in the CO2 exit stream) were estimated. The study of the separation stage is a promising area, and still little explored when compared to the extraction stage. The impact of the fixed cost of investment, raw material cost, utilities cost, operational-labor cost and waste treatment cost on the COM were evaluated. This study was important since it broke the paradigm that the fixed cost of investment would be the factor of major impact on the COM of the extracts produced by SFE. The raw material cost was predominant on the composition of the COM of the extracts from most vegetable matrices obtained by SFE and SD. SFE is a promising process, and there already are many industrial units operating in China, France, Germany, etc. The preliminary estimative of the manufacturing costs of the extracts of C. verbenacea, rosemary, chamomile, anise and black pepper obtained by SFE and SD were: US$ 914.00/kg and US$ 10,350.00/kg, US$ 214.00/kg and US$ 369.00/kg, US$ 277.00/kg and US$ 2,798.00/kg, US$ 216.00/kg and US$ 272.00/kg, US$ 198.00/kg and US$ 232.00/kg, respectively. These costs were compared to the selling prices of similar products produced in Brazil and/or abroad. The annual productivities of each process were confronted. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 04/09310-3 - Comparative study of manufacturing costs and functional properties of volatile oils obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation
Grantee:Patricia Franco Leal Gestic
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate