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Liposome-based drug delivery systems for ropivacaine encapsulated by remote (ion gradient) loading

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Author(s):
Camila Morais Gonçalves da Silva
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Campinas, SP.
Institution: Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Instituto de Biologia
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Eneida de Paula; Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto; Marlus Chorilli; Marco Vinicius Chaud; Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga
Advisor: Cintia Maria Saia Cereda; Eneida de Paula
Abstract

Ropivacaine (RVC) is a local anesthetic that is widely used in surgical procedures. Drug delivery systems based on liposomes or cyclodextrins for RVC have shown good results, although greater duration of anesthesia is required for lengthy surgical procedures, chronic pain or during the postoperative period. The main goal of this study was to improve the encapsulation of RVC in liposomes, to extend the duration of its anesthetic effect, and to reduce its cytotoxicity. To this end, liposomal formulations were prepared at pH 7.4: i) with different lipid compositions (soy phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/?-tocopherol at 2:1:0.07 mol%, egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/?-tocopherol at 4:3:0.07 mol%, and hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC)/cholesterol at 2:1 mol%); ii) with different types of liposomes (unilamellar, multilamellar, and multivesicular); iii) containing different ionic gradients ¿ internal composition of the vesicles: pH 7.4 + ammonium sulfate, pH 5.5, pH 5.5 + ammonium sulfate, and pH 5.5 + sodium citrate. The formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersion, encapsulation efficiency (%EE), in vitro release kinetics, drug permeability, and degree of packing of the lipid layer. Chemometrics was used to select the best formulations for analyses of physicochemical stability, cytotoxicity and anesthetic effect. The formulation using RVC at 0.75% in multivesicular liposomes of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol with internal pH 5.5 + 300 mM of sodium citrate presented the best results: %EE of 62.5% and reduced cytotoxicity. This formulation also promoted significantly (p<0.05) prolonged analgesia (8 h) in mice compared to RVC in solution (4 h) or the other formulations (6 h). In a second step, the combined (donor-acceptor) liposomes composed of HSPC/cholesterol with ionic gradient were prepared and characterized: multivesicular donor vesicles with internal pH 7.4 + ammonium sulfate with RVC, and unilamellar acceptor vesicles with internal pH 5.5. The order of toxicity to 3T3 cells in culture was: RVC in the combined system < RVC in donor or acceptor liposomes < RVC in conventional liposomes, without gradient < RVC in solution. The analgesic effect of the combined formulation was significantly (p<0.05) longer (7 and 9 h, using 0.75 and 2% RVC, respectively) than donor or acceptor liposomes used separately (6 and 7 h), or RVC in solution (4 and 5 h). The results obtained open perspectives for the clinical use of these formulations in surgical procedures, chronic pain or during the postoperative period (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/21735-3 - Liposome-based drug delivery systems for ropivacaine encapsulated by remote (pH and ion gradient) loading.
Grantee:Camila Morais Gonçalves da Silva
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate