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Radical acetylation of aminoacids, peptides, and nucleobases by the biacetyl or methylglyoxal/peroxynitrite systems

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Rita Tokikawa
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Conjunto das Químicas (IQ e FCF) (CQ/DBDCQ)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Etelvino Jose Henriques Bechara; Norberto Peporine Lopes; Paolo Di Mascio; Sayuri Miyamoto; Clovis Ryuichi Nakaie
Advisor: Etelvino Jose Henriques Bechara; Maria Teresa Machini

Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a food and cigarette contaminant recently implicated in alcohol hepatotoxicity and lung disease. In turn, methylglyoxal (MG) is an α-oxoaldehyde frequently associated with diabetes and aging that is putatively formed by the oxidative fragmentation of trioses phosphate, acetone and aminoacetone. Peroxynitrite - a potent oxidant, nitrating agent and nucleophile formed in vivo by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide radical with nitric oxide (k ~1010 M-1s-1) - is able to form adducts with carbon dioxide and carbonyl compounds. When initially present in the reaction mixtures before addition of ONOO-, amino acids, peptides and nucleobases undergo acetylation at the amino group and purine moieties in the presence of biacetyl or methylglyoxal. Higher levels of 3-nitrotyrosine nitration were measured when peroxynitrite/biacetyl or metilglioxal was added to tyrosine, in comparison with peroxynitrite alone. Both amino groups of L-lysine or one of the amino groups of L-lysine derivatives (Z-Lys-OH and Ac-Lys-OH) were acetylated by biacetyl and methylglyoxal/peroxynitrite system. Using tetrapeptides containing lysine at the terminal amino acid (H-KALA-OH, Ac-KALA-OH and H-K(Boc)ALA-OH), the lysine residue was acetylated at both or either α-amino (major adduct) and ε-amino group (minor adduct). Altogether these data can be interpreted by the mechanism proposed to describe the reaction of α-dicarbonyls with peroxynitrite as follows: (i) nucleophilic addition of peroxynitrite to the carbonyl group of the reagent; (ii) homolysis of the formed peroxynitroso carbonyl adduct to •NO2 and a carbonyloxyl radical; (iii) β-cleavage of the oxyl radical to acetyl radical plus acetic acid (from diacetyl) or formic acid (from methylglyoxal); (iv) competitive scavenging of the acetyl radical by dissolved molecular oxygen and by added amino acid, peptide or nucleobase, ultimately yielding acetate or acetylated biomolecule. If occurring in vivo, these radical reactions may contribute to the post-translational modification of proteins catalyzed by transacetylases. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 06/56655-1 - Acylation of DNA and proteins by A-dicarbonyl metabolites in the presence of peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide
Grantee:Rita Tokikawa
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate (Direct)