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Ethylene-auxin interaction and its influence on volatile profile during ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

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Vanessa Caroline de Barros Bonato
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Conjunto das Químicas (IQ e FCF) (CQ/DBDCQ)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Eduardo Purgatto; Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira Peres
Advisor: Eduardo Purgatto

Fruit ripening is a complex and genetically programmed process through the fruit acquires characteristics (sweetness and acidity, color, softening, flavor and aroma, etc.) that make it attractive to consumers. The tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) has been widely used as a model for studies on fruit ripening due to its nutritional and economic importance and advances in the understanding of its genetics and biochemistry. A set of 20 to 30 volatile substances, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, which were derived from amino acids, fatty acids and carotenoids, contribute to the flavor. The hormone ethylene is closely related to the metabolic changes that occur in the maturation, including the generation of these volatile compounds, through the activation of transcription factors that regulate genes encoding proteins involved in this process. Although the knowledge about the biochemistry pathways that produces flavor compounds and the involvement of ethylene have advanced, little is known about the regulation of this process. In addition, ethylene is not the unique hormone that plays this role on fruit ripening. There is a growing body of evidence indicating the involvement of auxin in the maturation. The role of other hormonal classes is still little explored when compared to progress made on the role of ethylene in fruit ripening, especially regarding the regulation of the biosynthetic pathways of volatile compounds. This study aim to assess how the interaction between the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant auxin in plants, and ethylene influence the production of tomato fruit aroma. To do this, fruit from tomato cultivar Micro-Tom were treated with IAA and ethylene, separately and in combination. The results showed that the fruit groups characterized by having different profiles of volatile compounds. The treatment with IAA and IAA + ethylene caused delay in accumulation of volatile compounds derived from isoprenoid, as well as in the transcription of genes involved in the synthesis of these compounds: carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B (S/CCD1A and S/CCD1B). The change from green to red and the accumulation of lycopene were also delayed in response to these two treatments. We also assessed the levels of transcripts of genes involved in the synthesis of volatile compounds derived from fatty acids (lipoxygenases [S/LOX], hydroperoxide lyases [S/HPL] and alcohol dehydrogenases [S/ADH]), besides the levels of ethylene production, and IAA in free and conjugated form. The results were robust with respect to impacts on volatile compounds profiles, caused by the same hormone treatments in tomato variety Grape. The data suggest that auxin plays an important role in the synthesis of volatile compounds in tomato fruit, negatively regulating this metabolism. This modulating effect likely occurs through crosstalks with ethylene. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/16285-4 - Ethylene-auxin interaction and its influence on the production of aroma volatile compounds during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening
Grantee:Vanessa Caroline de Barros Bonato
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master