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Effects of melatonin on viability and gene expression in porcine oocytes and cumulus cells matured in vitro

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Author(s):
Maria Helena Coelho Cruz
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Pirassununga.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Zootecnica e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZE/BT)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Claudia Lima Verde Leal; Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli; Mariana Groke Marques; Lígia Garcia Mesquita; Simone Cristina Méo Niciura
Advisor: Claudia Lima Verde Leal
Abstract

Melatonin is a very effective antioxidant and protects cells against oxidative stress caused by reactive species, and indirectly modulates expression of genes associated with cell cycle, oxidative metabolism, and apoptosis. Thus, melatonin supplementation to in vitro maturation media becomes an alternative to improve the viability of germ and embryonic cells. The first study assessed the effects of adding melatonin to the maturation medium on nuclear (meiotic progression) and cytoplasmic (cortical granules migration) maturation and ROS levels in in vitro matured porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Melatonin supplementation stimulated meiosis progression and cortical granules migration, and reduced intracellular ROS levels in oocytes. The second study evaluated the effects of melatonin on the expression of antioxidant genes (Catalase, SOD1, SOD2, and GPX) involved in cellular protection in oocytes and cumulus cells. The addition of melatonin to the maturation medium positivity influence the expression of antioxidant genes in oocytes and cumulus cells. The third study evaluated the effect of melatonin on genes associated with biological processes through transcriptomic profile via RNA-Seq in cumulus cells derived from porcine COCs in vitro matured. Melatonin addition to maturation medium differentially affected expression of 80 genes associated with nine biological processes (cell cycle, proteolysis, cytoskeletal organization, energy pathaway, cell adhesion and transport, signalling pathway, transcription factor, oxidative metabolism and apoptosis, and cell components). The fourth study assessed the effect of melatonin on genes associated with oocyte viability and subsequent embryo development through transcriptomic profile via RNA-Seq in cumulus cells derived from porcine COCs. Melatonin in the maturation medium affected 59 genes associated with nine biological functions related with oocyte viability and embryo development (cumulus expansion, communication between cumulus cells and oocytes, nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation, DNA repair and integrity, oocyte viability, steroidogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis). In conclusion, supplementation of melatonin to maturation environment influences oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, reduces intracellular ROS levels, positivity influence the expression of antioxidant and also interferes in the transcriptome of a significant number of genes associated with oocyte competence acquisition, embryo viability and subsequent development. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/06180-8 - Effects of melatonin on development and cryopreservation of porcine parthenogenetic embryos produced in vitro
Grantee:Maria Helena Coelho Cruz
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate