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Evaluation of antibiotic multi-resistance and production of ESBL and carbapenemases in gram-negative bacilli of hospital and urban effluent

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Author(s):
Guilherme Sgobbi Zagui
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Susana Segura Muñoz; Denise de Andrade; Leonardo Neves de Andrade; Valeria Cristina da Silva Italiani
Advisor: Susana Segura Muñoz
Abstract

Antibiotic multi-resistance observed in Gram-negative bacilli is a serious public health problem due to high morbidity and mortality, especially in health care institutions. As a consequence of the intense use of antibiotics, multi-resistance to these drugs is mainly mediated by hydrolyzing enzymes, in which ?-lactamases, the main ?-lactam resistance mechanism observed in Gramnegative bacilli, are prominent. Hospital sewage and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are considered reservoirs of multiresistant bacteria by the presence of antibiotics that select these bacteria and favor the transmission of resistance determinants. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate the antibiotics multi-resistance and the production of ?-lactamase enzymes in Gram-negative bacilli isolated from hospital effluent and the wastewater treatment plants in Ribeirão Preto city, SP. In the tertiary hospital, sewage samples from the outpatient clinics, rooms patients and the hospital sewage junction were collected. In the WWTP, raw and treated sewage were collected. Ten microliters were seeded on MacConkey, Salmonella-Shigella, Cetrimide and TCBS agar and the identification of Gram-negative bacilli was performed by the Bactray® kit. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by agar-diffusion method. Phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing bacilli was performed by double-disc and discsynergy tests combined with clavulanic acid, and for the detection of carbapenemase-producing isolates the combined disk tests with phenylboronic acid and EDTA and Blue Carba test were used. PCR amplification of ESBL and carbapenemases-encoding genes was used. In total, 45 Gram-negative bacilli were isolated, and Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most prevalent. Extensive resistance was verified to ?-lactam antibiotics and resistance to aztreonam, cefepime and cefotaxime was more pronounced in hospital sewage isolates, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05). Multidrug-resistant phenotype was attributed to 33.3% in isolates exclusively from hospital sewage, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0025) in relation to the sewage isolates from the WWTP. ?-lactamase genes were found in 35.6% of the bacteria, with blaKPC and blaTEM having the highest occurrences, both in 17.8% of the isolates, and the blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in 13.3% and 8, 9%. Only in an isolate of Enterobacter cloacae in the treated sewage from WWTP was the blaSHV gene identified, the other isolates carrying the ?-lactamases genes were found in hospital sewage. The data obtained in this study are important considering that in Brazil the hospital sewage can be released in nature in municipal collection network, however, it is believed that such permission favors the dissemination of bacterial multi-resistance, since, the results show high frequency of bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes in the hospital sewer studied. Thus, the implementation of treatment of hospital effluents, especially those in tertiary hospitals, and in addition to the treatment of WWTP would prevent the spread of these bacteria in the environment and negatively impact water resources (AU)

FAPESP's process: 17/10723-0 - Evaluation of multidrug resistance of bacteria isolated from hospital and domestic effluent: determination of survival to the treatment of sewage and inactivating antibiotic enzymes
Grantee:Guilherme Sgobbi Zagui
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master