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Development of alginate-based edible film incorporated with clove essential oil as antimicrobial agent: application in food

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Author(s):
Maria Crystina Igarashi
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Conjunto das Químicas (IQ e FCF) (CQ/DBDCQ)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Mariza Landgraf; Maria Teresa Destro; Cynthia Ditchfield
Advisor: Mariza Landgraf
Abstract

The use of biodegradable packaging such as edible films and coatings are an alternative to the use of non-recyclable packaging. The incorporation of antimicrobial substances in packaging aims at reducing food microbial contamination among which, essential oils (EO) have received special attention being natural and attending consumer demand. However, the use of EO as a natural antimicrobial agent is limited by organoleptic criteria making it necessary to determine the minimum concentration to inhibit the multiplication of microorganisms without affecting the sensory characteristics of the food. Therefore, the aims of this research were: to develop an alginate based edible film with natural antimicrobial agents, evaluating the addition of different concentrations of calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent in the formulation of the film and in the complementary stage; to characterize the mechanical properties and barrier properties; to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO for Pseudomonas spp, Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes found in chicken meat and to verify consumer acceptance of the product through sensorial analysis (aroma). Among the studied EO, the concentration of 0.2% of clove oil was effective in inhibiting the microorganisms tested, this concentration being the minimum limit used in the experimental design for film development. The independent variables studied in this design were calcium chloride in the range of 0.02 to 0.01% and clove EO in the range of 0.2 to 1.0%. Concentrations of CaCl2 above 0.0316%, independent of the EO concentration, reduced the inhibition zone of microbial growth in in vitro tests, possibly due to the formation of a very strong gel which could have made the incorporation of the EO emulsion in the polymeric matrix of the film very difficult. The results of water vapor permeability tests showed that the addition of CaCl2 to the formulation of the films reduced the permeability while the addition of clove EO increased this property. Regarding to mechanical properties, the addition of CaCl2 as well as clove EO to the film formulation increased the values of tensile strength. On the other hand, relating to elongation at the break, smaller values were obtained with the addition of the salt while the addition of EO provided higher values. The evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the films in chicken meat was performed only with the formulation that showed the highest inhibition values presented in vitro (CaCl2=0.0316% and clove EO=0.0884%). After five days of storage at 7° C, it was observed that the use of the film added by clove EO as primary packaging provided the control of L. monocytogenes growth in samples of chicken meat but not of Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas spp. The sensorial analysis - aroma - showed that the use of alginate based film incorporated with clove EO is viable in food. However, when the food matrix presents exudation, it can interfere in this film. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 08/01460-7 - Evaluation of essential oils as antimicrobial agents incorporated into alginate based edible film.
Grantee:Maria Crystina Igarashi
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master