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Contribution of the troposphere-stratosphere interaction on surface cyclogenesis over South America

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Author(s):
Natália Machado Crespo
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto Astronômico e Geofísico (IAG/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Rosmeri Porfirio da Rocha; Clara Miho Narukawa Iwabe; Rita Yuri Ynoue
Advisor: Rosmeri Porfirio da Rocha
Abstract

The process of troposphere-stratosphere interaction has influence and is very important on surface cyclogenesis. However, the frequency of these interactions and how they influence the intensity of cyclones is not known exactly. The main objective of this work is to study how the upper levels affect the development of surface cyclones in South America and South Atlantic Ocean using the concept of potential vorticity (PV). Cyclone tracking data and 300 hPa PV were used to develop an algorithm that automatically associates the surface cyclones with potential vorticity anomaly (PVA). For the period 1998-2003, the cyclones were separated as associated (APVA) and non-associated (NPVA) with PVA. In general, it was observed that most of the APVA cyclone was concentrated in extratropical oceanic region, while NPVA cyclones form over the continent preferably around 30°S and subtropics. The total number of APVA cyclones (55%) exceeds the number of NPVA (45%), except for 2002. In regard to seasonal distribution, the APVA cyclones are more frequent in winter and spring months while NPVA in summer months. The lifetime of NPVA cyclones is shorter and they are less intense than APVA (according to the average central pressure). In addition to these factors, the mean traveled distance and mean velocity are smaller in the NPVA than in APVA. The composites of the synoptic fields show that in NPVA events, regardless of the season, the troposphere is warmer than in APVA. In NPVA cases the thermal forcing is essential to the cyclogenesis, while in the APVA the cyclonic vorticity induced by PVA at upper levels propagating to low levels is more important. The NPVA cases present more baroclinic characteristics which the upper and mid-level troughs accompanied by the jet stream favoring the surface cyclone development, whereas in the APVA the surface cyclone center remains almost vertically aligned with these troughs. For APVA cases, the centers of cyclonic vorticity at 500 hPa detach from westerly flow in all seasons however in summer this is also seen in NPVA. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/07305-1 - Troposphere-stratosphere interaction processes contributions to surface cyclogenesis over South America and the South Atlantic Ocean
Grantee:Natália Machado Crespo
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master