Advanced search
Start date

Organic matter structure and stability in areas with carbn sequestration potential in the soil

Full text
Aline Segnini
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Carlos.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Química de São Carlos (IQSC/BT)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Ladislau Martin Neto; Mario Miyazawa; Maria Olimpia de Oliveira Rezende; Sergio da Costa Saab; Wilson Tadeu Lopes da Silva
Advisor: Ladislau Martin Neto

Agriculture can play an important role in mitigating carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere. Through photosynthesis, it is possible to convert CO2 from atmosphere to plant biomass, and moreover, through an adequate agricultural system CO3 can be stored in soil, characterizing \"carbon sequestration\". Nowadays, many researches want to understand the role of agriculture production, as no-tillage, and Brachiaria pastures, in carbon dynamics in soil. Studies about organic matter dynamics and stability are necessary, since variables such as carbon stocks and degree of humification can be evaluated, and as a result, to obtain essential parameters to CO2 mitigation to the atmosphere. This topic is inserted in some Global Climate Change interests. In this context, spectroscopic methods, for example, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), UV-Vis light fluorescence and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) can be fundamental in the stability of soil organic matter (SOM) evaluation. The present study aims to examine the SOM behavior in areas with carbon sequestration potential, through evaluation of carbon stocks in soils, in different tillage systems followed by characterization by spectroscopy. Therefore, the knowledge of the organic matter (OM) quantity is important in soil management regarding to a sustainable agriculture. However, little consistent information is found to compare and recommend the most adequate method to obtain satisfactory results for each study. Consequently, it was possible to evaluate the OM quantity in Oxisols by different methods and compare them, using coefficient of variation and principal component analysis, to propose the best methodology. In the tropical regions of Brazil, in Brachiaria decumbens pastureland, the results showed that the greatest SOM content occurred under pastureland, against the native dense Cerrado vegetation, after 27 years of experiment. The highest carbon stocks obtained by pasture samples were favored by accumulations of plant biomass on the soil surface, nitrogen input, besides Brachiaria root systems. According to the results obtained, the annual input of adequate amounts of limestone (2 t ha-1 addition and 1 t ha-1 year-1 reinforcement) and N seemed to be the best treatment regarding different pastureland treatments, mainly due to its higher C accumulation. The results also showed that non-degraded pastures can enable an annual sequestration rate ranging from 6.1 to 12.8 Mg CO2 ha-1 year-1. Qualitative evaluation of SOM also obtained satisfactory results on the soil surface. Results showed that higher C amount was followed by lower degree of humification, obtained by LIF. This lower humification was due to labile organic material, or greater fresh input of crop residues. In conventional fluorescence and EPR, with humic acids, the greatest degree of humification was obtained in pastures treatments, especially in treatments with lime input. Ca2+, in addition to increasing the biological activity, can combine with humic acids, increasing OM stability. In the no-tillage system of soya and sugar cane renovation, higher C amounts were obtained in no-tillage samples, after 7 years of experiment. The maintenance of a permanent vegetal cover, without soil disturbing and without sugar cane burning was essential to SOM accumulation against conventional management. In the no-tillage system, in a period of 7 years, it was possible to verify a sequestration rate ranging from 0.15 to 5.29 Mg CO2 ha-1 year-1. In relation to SOM stability by LIF, no-tillage presented lower degree of humification, due to input labile OM. The results obtained under no-tillage cropping system after 22 years are probably associated with the kind of soil analyzed. In Latossols, with high amount of clay, there may be a physical protection of OM, probably preventing structural changes in this material, even after a long period without soil disturbing. Another important factor is that C sequestration studies depend on the evaluated area, such as experiment outline, historical area, time, climate conditions, C decomposition rates, vegetal biomass production and residue input. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 03/06096-8 - Structure and reactivity of organic matter in areas with potential for carbon sequestration in the soil: studies with spectroscopic methods
Grantee:Aline Segnini
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate