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Hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulosic residues aiming the ethanol production

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Ana Sílvia de Almeida Scarcella
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli; Fernando Segato; Paula Bruzadelle Vieira
Advisor: Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli

As cellulosic wastes are rich in cellulose and hemicellulose they have been pointed as promising sources for ethanol production. Thereby, this work aimed to hydrolyze and ferment cellulosic residues to produce ethanol. In order to study the hydrolyzes of sugar-cane bagasse and ferment the sugars obtained from this process, twenty-two fungi were isolated in the city of Araras-SP and tested for endoglucanase (EG) production. Aiming to optmize an enzyme cocktail, variables as temperature, optimum pH, different buffers, stability, salt influence, EDTA and ?-mercaptoethanol were tested for laccase, xylanase, endo- ?-1,4-glucanase, cellobiohydrolase I, ?-glucosidase and glucoamylase. The standard conditions for applying the enzyme cocktail were 55°C, sodium citrate buffer 50 mM pH 5.0. For the preparation of the enzyme cocktail a Plackett-Burman was made followed by a central composite design, in which the standard conditions for application were (U/g of sugarcane bagasse): 0.122 of laccase; 7 of xylanase; 5 of endoglucanase; 14 of cellobiohydrolase and 9 of ?-glucosidase per gram of sugarcane bagasse. After 48 hours of hydrolyzes in the following conditions, 55ºC, sodium citrate buffer 50 mM (7 mL), pH 7.0, 110 rpm, 4.405 µmol of reducing sugar per mL were released. The hydrolyzate obtained was separately fermented by the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii 311 (CCT7783) and with both yeasts in a mixed cultivation, in order to investigate the need of medium supplementation for ethanol production. The results showed the need of supplementation to increase the viability of the yeasts. It was observed that this procedure kept the viability over 90%. The fermentation with Meyerozyma guilliermondii 311 (CCT7783), without supplementation, allowed the production of 12.66% of ethanol and with Saccharomyces cerevisiae the production was 7.03% with a supplementation of 3 g/L of yeast extract. The fermentation with mixed cultivation produced 0.53% and 1.18% in 24 and 48 hours of cultivation, respectively. Another objective of this work was the hydrolysis of paper sludge which was obtained by using amylases from Aspergillus carbonarius and commercial cellulases. The products of enzymatic hydrolysis of the white sludge detected in HPLC showed the formation of glucose, xylose and maltose traits. Cell viability counting of the yeast, analyzes of pH, reducing sugar and alcohol content were carried out. Cellular viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae along the fermentation was kept over 95%. Paper sludge fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in medium supplemented with yeast extract 3 g/L, was considered satisfactory, showing 2.37 g/L of ethanol. Surface analysis was performed by Ion-tof and scanning electron microscopy in the cellulosic waste. Thus, this work made possible to study the importance of fungal enzymes application in lignocellulosic biomass degradation for the production of second generation ethanol. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/23385-5 - Hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulosic residues aiming the ethanol production
Grantee:Ana Sílvia de Almeida Scarcella
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Master