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Biogeography and comparative phylogeography of the birds of Pernambuco Centre of Endemism using Ultraconserved Elements (UCEs)

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Author(s):
Fernanda Bocalini
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Instituto de Biociências (IBIOC/SB)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Luis Fábio Silveira; Roberta Pacheco Damasceno; Mercival Roberto Francisco; Vítor de Queiroz Piacentini
Advisor: Luis Fábio Silveira
Abstract

The Pernambuco Centre of Endemism (PCE) is the Atlantic Forest (AF) region most affected by deforestation and fragmentation. The biogeographical relationships among the PCE, the Southern AF and Amazonia (AM) have not been addressed comprehensively in recent studies. Processes that contribute to the origin of the Neotropical biodiversity can occur through different models of diversification such as the forest refugia and riverine barriers and both can be tested with the PCE birds. Furthermore, connections between Amazonia and AF would have been hypothesized to have affected the composition of the PCE based on the species\' elevational distribution. Furthermore, connections between AM and AF could have an important role on the PCE diversification process with a putatively altitudinal related origin. Here, we conducted a comparative phylogenomic study of 7 bird taxa endemic to the PCE to clarify its biogeographic history and to detail the historical connections between AM and PCE using the sequencing of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and one mitochondrial gene. We sequenced ND2 gene and extracted SNPs from approximately 5,000 UCEs and used it to reconstruct phylogenetic relationship among populations, describe population structure and to test alternative demographic scenarios. Mitochondrial DNA and UCEs SNPs analyses presented a congruent pattern in general, in which PCE populations are closely related to Southern AF, an origin not related to elevational range, in some taxa the PCE population is not even an independent evolutionary lineage. Demographic history demonstrated that all taxa presented a pattern of divergence with gene flow, the PCE population likely originated from Amazonia throughout multiple connections within Pliocene and Pleistocene, afterwards this population expanded southwards and colonized the region on the South of Rio São Francisco, subsequent migrations after divergence were present in all taxa and among all regions resulting on secondary contact. Pleistocene climatic changes were the major responsible for the generation of the AF biodiversity and for promoting connections between AM and AF, nevertheless, the divergence and migration patterns we recovered are generally idiosyncratic, demonstrating that differences in the ecological traits of each species may be a decisive factor in their evolutionary history. The origin of PCE bird community has been a prolonged process instead of simultaneous event and multiple connections with Amazonia together with the various Pleistocene climatic oscillations contributed to the formation of its present-day diversity (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/11397-4 - Biogeography and comparative phylogeography of the birds of Pernambuco Centre of Endemism using Ultraconserved Elements (UCEs)
Grantee:Fernanda Bocalini
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate