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Effects of exercise training on insulin resistance, endothelial function and skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodeling in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery

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Author(s):
Wagner Silva Dantas
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola de Educação Física e Esportes (EEFE/BT)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Bruno Gualano; Patricia Chakur Brum; Marco Aurelio Santo
Advisor: Bruno Gualano
Abstract

Bariatric surgery provides cardiometabolic protection to obese individuals, contributing to a reduction in mortality risk. However, the extent of metabolic benefit may be subject to changes in the patient\'s lifestyle after surgical intervention. Although exercise seems to improve the effects of surgery on insulin sensitivity, the underlying mechanism of action remains largely unexplained. It is speculated that potential changes in the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) could be associated with improved insulin sensitivity induced by physical exercise in post-bariatric patients. In addition, it is not known whether the benefits of bariatric surgery on endothelial function, an important marker of early atherosclerosis, are sustainable without changes in lifestyle, such as the inclusion of physical exercise. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of exercise on intracellular signaling involved in insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle ECM remodeling (Study 1) and the effects of exercise on the brachial artery vasodilator response of patients undergoing bariatric surgery (Study 2). Sixty-two women were randomized after bariatric surgery to a 6-month exercise program or standard of treatment. At the beginning of the study, 3 and 9 months after surgery, insulin sensitivity was assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), endothelial function analysis and skeletal muscle samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Skeletal muscle samples were subjected to comprehensive analysis, including gene and protein expression, skeletal muscle phenotype, transcriptome and identification of new cell signaling pathways. Exercise training after bariatric surgery improved insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. This response was mediated by molecular and phenotypic changes in ECM. Bariatric surgery per se was unable to completely resolve insulin resistance and skeletal muscle ECM expansion. Relevant exercise-modulated candidates emerged as therapeutic targets for the treatment of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, namely the TGFβ1/SMAD 2/3 pathway and its follistatin antagonist. In summary, we employed a \"top-down approach\" to provide evidence that skeletal muscle ECM plays a key role in the overlapping effects of bariatric surgery and exercise on insulin sensitivity in obese women. In addition, this study demonstrated that physical training avoided reversal of endothelial function improvement by improving blood flow pattern and reducing inflammatory markers. In conclusion, in revealing a new mechanism by which exercise can counterbalance insulin resistance in post-bariatric patients (i.e., attenuate ECM thickness) and preserve endothelial function, this study endorses that exercise should be adopted as a relevant therapeutic measure in order to guarantee the best cardiometabolic results in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/02835-8 - Effects of exercise training on insulin resistance and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle in patients undergoing bariatric surgery: a randomized trial
Grantee:Wagner Silva Dantas
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate