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Dendrological and anatomical of wood study of the trees of the \Luiz de Queiroz\ School of Agriculture, University of São Paulo: subsidies for conservation

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Author(s):
Luiz Santini Junior
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALA/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Mario Tommasiello Filho; Sandra Monteiro Borges Florsheim; Claudia Fabrino Machado Mattiuz
Advisor: Mario Tommasiello Filho
Abstract

The term \"green area\" is understood as urban spaces that have in common the accessibility, the relationship of health, recreation and that provide interaction of human activities with the environment, acting on climate balance and quality of life in cities as filter or natural wind barrier, sound and particulates of the air, improving the quality of climate, soil, water, fauna and flora, etc. In this context stands the Philippe Westin Cabral de Vasconcelos Park, known as the ESALQ\'s Park, located on the University of São Paulo, Campus Piracicaba/SP. With approximately 15 ha, it is the second largest park in extension and the most frequented of the five existing parks in the municipality, inaugurated in 1907 and started to represent a patrimony worthy of preservation, by the historical aspect and by the scientific, didactic, ecological and cultural value, being in 2006. Its history is marked by a dynamic of reforms and interventions to improve and modernize the area, as well as inadequate management that are compromising the maintenance of the original landscape project. Thus, in order to subsidize a Sustainable Management Plan for the ESALQ\'s Park, the present study was divided into three chapters: the first one makes a floristic survey of the 100 main tree species that compose the ESALQ\'s Park, for the elaboration of the \"Illustrated Guide of the ESALQ\'s Trees \", with the dendrological and anatomical characterization of the wood of the species. It was identified predominance of the family Leguminosae, followed by the families Malvaceae and Bignoniaceae. Regarding importance, the most abundant were quality wood species (46%), followed by those of landscape and ornamental importance (28%), fruit production and medicinal application (12-14%) and 10 species that are under some degree of threat. In chapter 2, we identified some of the main problems that compromise the conservation of the ESALQ\'s Park, through five case studies. The results point to successive practices of irregular pruning in the branches of the trees that are leading the species to senescence, by the exposure of the woody tissue and the consequent establishment of xylophagous organisms. The occurrence of exotic invasive plant species infesting several areas of the park and competing for resources with the local trees was another serious problem identified. There were also the presence of wandering domestic animals (cats and dogs) that are related to the predation of some native species of the place (birds and mammals), as well as fallen trees and stumps remaining of old suppressions that represent way of access and establishment of fungi and termites that can infect healthy trees. The opening of ditches for maintenance and replacement of pipelines led to the destruction of parts of some Brazil wood roots (Paubrasilia echinata) and Mirindiba rosa (Lafoensia glyptocarpa), affecting the natural development of the trees. All the factors pointed out pose a risk to the conservation of the park and must be based on the discussions to create the Sustainable Management Plan of the ESALQ\'s Park. Finally, Chapter 3 deals with the potential use of three nondestructive methods to analyze the biodeterioration of the wood caused by fungi in five tree species of the ESALQ\'s Park. The preparation of histological slides allowed to analyze the extent of the injuries caused in the wood, with different levels of destruction of the anatomical structure of the wood. On the other hand, the application of x-ray microdensitometry and X-ray fluorescence, for the elaboration of physical and chemical profiles, revealed significant alterations in the samples between the healthy and affected regions of the wood. From the physical point of view, these alterations are related to the loss of density in the regions of diseased wood and increase in the regions of compartmentalization (physical-chemical isolation). In turn, the chemical profile points to the occurrence of some main elements that may be related to the physiological response of the plant to the attack of pathogens. In this way, the present study allowed to identify the main tree species of the ESALQ\'s Park, as well as the main problems that compromise its conservation, which can serve as a document to support the elaboration of a sustainable management plan that contributes to the conservation of this historic area of the state of São Paulo. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/17312-8 - ANATOMICAL WOOD AND DENDROLOGICAL STUDY THE TREES THE PARK LUIZ DE QUEIROZ: GRANTS FOR CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION
Grantee:Luiz Santini Junior
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate