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Antarctic soil fungi: prospecting L- asparaginase and protease and taxonomic characterization

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Author(s):
Marina Vitti Vianna
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Rio Claro. 2016-07-18.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Instituto de Biociências. Rio Claro
Defense date:
Advisor: Lara Durães Sette
Abstract

Extreme environments are potential sources for the discovery of new natural products with specific properties for biotechnological applications due to little knowledge about the diversity and genetic resources of microorganisms that inhabit these places. Microorganisms from the Antarctic environment have shown potential for producing active enzymes in mild temperatures with application in various sectors of economic importance. In this context, the present study evaluated the production of proteases and L-asparaginase by filamentous fungi (n= 161) and yeasts (n= 137) isolated from seven different samples of the Antarctic soils (collected in the Antarctic expedition Nov/Dec 2013 - INCT Cryosphere Project). The isolates are being maintained in the research collection linked to the Microbial Resource Center of UNESP (CRM-UNESP). A total of 101 (62.7%) filamentous fungi showed potential for production of L-asparaginase on solid medium (qualitative screening), but in the quantitative screening in liquid medium the enzyme was not produced. Concerning proteases production, 121 (75.1%) filamentous fungi presented halo of degradation on solid medium and 30 (18.6%) isolates showed protease activity above 45.0 U/mL Among them, thirteen (8.7%) isolates were able to produce protease above 100.0 U/mL: seven isolates produced alkaline proteases and six acid proteases. The isolates 5BI (Aspergillus sp.) and 6 MP (Thelebolus sp.) showed the best results in the production of acid and alkaline proteases, respectively, and were submitted to the experimental design. Results indicated a significant increase in protease production at 10 °C and 150 rpm: 7.41 times for the production of acid proteases by the fungus 5BI (1,810.0 U/mL) and 5.38 times (1,542.5 U/mL) for the production of alkaline proteases by the fungus 6MP. For both isolates the conditions applied for the maximum production of proteases were validated. Results related to the assessment of the diversity of the 137 yeasts (MSP-PCR) revealed the presence of 22 different taxa, especially the genera Cryptococcus (21.1%), Rhodotorula e Candida (20.4%). Other less prevalent genera found were: Cystofilobasidium (13.8%), Rhodosporidium (13.1%), Leucosporidium (8.7%), Guehomyces (6.5%), Debaryomyces (3.6%), Bulleromyces (2.9%), and Malassezia (2.1%). Based on the Simpson, Shannon and Chao indexes, the soil BI (biofilm soil, Deception Island) was the most diverse and presented the greatest richness. Analysis of physicochemical parameters of the soils and their diversity revealed that MP (soil under rotten wood, Deception), FE (soil under iron bar, Deception), and GC 4.0 (soil under layer ice, King George) are closed related. The present work presents an overview of the diversity of yeast in different types of soils from Antarctic Islands and reveals the biotechnological potential of filamentous fungi for the production of acid and alkaline proteases. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 14/10207-4 - Fungi from Antarctic soil: prospecting of enzymes with industrial interest and taxonomic characterization
Grantee:Marina Vitti Vianna
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master