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Development of a meat sausage with low fat and curing salts contents, fermented with probiotic cultures

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Mariana Nougalli Roselino
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Araraquara. 2016-04-29.
Institution: Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas. Araraquara
Defense date:
Advisor: Daniela Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini

Fermented sausages, processed and consumed without heating, are the most promising meat products for the placement of probiotics, however, have as disadvantages the high fat content and the presence of residual nitrite and nitrate and potentially toxic compounds, such as bioactive amines. This work studied the effect of using lactic acid bacteria with lipid lowering property in technological, sensory and safety characteristics of a fermented susage, similar to salami with fat, nitrite and nitrate reduced. The potential beneficial effects of the product were investigated in an in vitro study. Two probiotic strains (Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014) were tested separately as starter cultures. The sausages with a low fat content (60% reduction) were processed in six treatments: 2 - traditional cultures with fat reduction and without curing salts reduction (nitrite and nitrate 0.015% 0.005%); 3 - traditional cultures with fat and curing salt reduction (nitrite and nitrate 0.007% 0.003%); 4, 5, 6, 7 - probiotic cultures (E. faecium CRL183 and L. acidophilus CRL1014) with fat reduction, without and with curing salt reduction, respectively. For comparison, a control product (1 - traditional cultures without fat and curing salts reduction) was also produced. Probiotic cultures (E. faecium CRL 183 and L. acidophilus CRL 1014) were submitted to preliminary tests to determine resistance to curing salt concentrations usually employed in fermented meat products and evaluation of antimicrobial substances production capacity by the spot-on-lawn technique. The quality of the sausages was evaluated by physical, chemical and microbiological analyzes at the beginning of processing and during periods of maturation and storage. Acceptance tests were performed every 30 days of storage, and a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with sausages ready for consumption (T30). The sausage had the best characteristics of previous tests was subjected to an in vitro test on human microbial ecosystem simulator (SEMH) for evaluation of the gastrointestinal survival of the probiotic microorganism, determining the effect of probiotic meat product in the production of fatty acids short chain and ammonia and modulation of the intestinal microbiota. In the analysis of sensitivity to curing salts, E. faecium CRL 183 showed no log reduction in the population of viable cells (109 CFU/mL) for all concentrations of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite evaluated. On the other hand, L. acidophilus CRL 1014 showed a log cycle reduction compared to control (p <0.05) with final population of viable cells in the order of 108 CFU/mL. The evaluated probiotic bacteria were not able to produce antimicrobial substances against indicator strains (Listeria monocytogenes IAL 628, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar typhimurium IAL 2431, e Escherichia coli IAL 339), since there was no formation of inhibition zones. The results show that E. faecium CRL 183 and L. acidophilus CRL 1014 can be used as starter cultures in the preparation of meat sausages, they are tolerant to sodium chloride and sodium nitrite concentrations typically used in such products. All treatments showed appropriate physicochemical and microbiological characteristics to the standards established for fermented sausage. The probiotic cultures remained viable by the end of analysis period, showing a population of about 108UFC/g (final ripening) and 107UFC/g (120 days of storage). The results obtained showed a very similar behavior between the different treatments, indicating that replacement of traditional starter cultures by probiotic as well as the curing salts reduction did not influence the microbiological quality of products. The partial replacement of animal fats with olive oil resulted in increased hardness, which did not alter the overall hedonic acceptance of samples. The QDA was not able to differentiate between samples depending on the strain used and the amount of added curing salts. Among treatments with fat and curing salts reduction and potentially probiotics, the fermented product with E. faecium CRL 183 (F5) presented at the end of the storage period, some superior characteristics to the product fermented with L. acidophilus CRL1014 (F7) - smaller population of coagulase positive staphylococci, lower lipid oxidation, better texture profile and better bioactive amines profile - and therefore selected for the second stage of the study. Tests using the SEMH showed that the fermented product consumption with E. faecium CRL 183 with fat and curing salts reduction may result in areducing Lactobacillus spp. (ascending, transverse and descending colon), Bacteroides spp. (descending colon) and Enterobacteriaceae (transverse and descending colon) and increased levels of ammonium ions. The same probiotic product stimulated the production of butyric and propionic acid, reduced the concentration of acetic acid during the treatment phase and altered the population of intestinal microorganisms. The results indicate that the probiotic sausage (E. faecium CRL 183), with fat and curing salts reduction is a healthier alternative of fermented meat product, since, besides having more interesting nutritional characteristics, has the potential to act in lipid profile, by improving the production of SCFA and modulating the microbiota with increased E. faecium CRL 183 population which is a proven cholesterol lowering strain. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/14129-2 - Development of a meat sausage with low fat and curing salts contents, fermented with probiotic cultures.
Grantee:Mariana Nougalli Roselino
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate