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The efficacy of an auditory temporal training program in children who present orthographic errors of the voiced-voiceless type

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Mayra Monteiro Pires
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina (FM/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Eliane Schochat; Renata Mota Mamede de Carvallo; Silvana Maria Monte Coelho Frota; Liliane Desgualdo Pereira
Advisor: Eliane Schochat

Introduction: Studies on children\'s written production of the Brazilian Portuguese (BP) have shown that one of the most frequent orthographic errors is the voiced-voiceless type. It is believed that children who perform this kind of error might present variations in the auditory temporal processing, which could impair the perception of phonemes with similar characteristics. This would then cause an inadequate phonological representation that does not allow the correct phoneme-grapheme association. Bearing this in mind, this work proposed an auditory temporal training program based on activities from the software Fast ForWord (FFW) to restore the skills related to auditory temporal processing and phoneme-grapheme association. Objective: Verify the effectiveness of an auditory temporal training program containing activities adapted from the FFW, which aims at restoring the temporal auditory abilities and reducing orthographic errors of the voiced-voiceless type in children who perform them. Method: Sixteen children aged between 10 and 12 years old participated on this study. They presented orthographic errors of the voiced-voiceless type and changes in one of the auditory temporal processing tests that was used in the evaluation. The children were divided in two groups: experimental group (EG), that performed the activities of the auditory temporal training; and the placebo group (PG), that performed a placebo training based on visual activities. After the end of the placebo training, children from this group were re-evaluated and put in the EG. Children from both groups underwent evaluations before and after the training through three auditory processing behavior measures, that were: Pitch Pattern Sequence Test (PPST), to measure the auditory temporal ordering skill; Gaps in Noise (GIN), to measure temporal resolution; and Progressive Temporal Test, to verify the perception of different quick inter-stimuli intervals. Besides that, an electrophysiological evaluation was conducted by using Mismatch Negativity (MMN) with the syllables /da/ and /ga/, as well as a written evaluation using a dictation. In this evaluation, the occurrences of the voiced-voiceless type error were analyzed in relation to: plosive and fricative graphemes; the frequency with which those type of errors occur in the same graphemes, and also the amount of processes that refer to voicing and devoicing. Results: The present study did not find statistically significant differences for the PG when comparing the evaluations conducted before and after the training in all the measures of evaluation. However, for the EG, statistically significant differences were found when comparing both evaluations - in all the behavior tests of the auditory processing and in the MMN latency as well. As for the written evaluation, statistically significant differences were also found, such as: the reduction of error in the amount of voiced-voiceless type errors in the fricative graphemes; reduction in the occurrence on plosive and fricative graphemes; and the reduction in the amount of processes related to voicing and devoicing. Conclusions: The present study showed that an auditory temporal training aiming at the rehabilitation and improvement of the auditory abilities of temporal ordering and resolution is effective. It also showed the training efficacy concerning: the perception of short inter-stimuli intervals presented quickly; the latency of MMN responses; as well as the reduction of error processes in the writing of children who presented orthographic errors of the voiced-voiceless type (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/25973-1 - The auditory training in ortographic changes by voicing features.
Grantee:Mayra Monteiro Pires
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate