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Postbloom fruit drop: definition of the action threshold for chemical control and survey of isolates sensitivity to tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin

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André Bueno Gama
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALA/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Lilian Amorim; Maria Cândida de Godoy Gasparoto; Natalia Aparecida Peres Lauretti; Geraldo José da Silva Junior
Advisor: Lilian Amorim

Brazilian citrus industry represents a significant share in the global citrus market. Amongst several diseases that affect the crop, postbloom fruit drop (PFD) has been gaining prominence in Sao Paulo with the displacement of citrus areas to regions in which weather conditions are more favorable to the occurrence of this disease. PFD, caused by species of the complexes Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides, is especially problematic in years of mild temperatures and high humidity. Citrus growers spray the orchards preventively for PFD control every year, although favorable climatic conditions do not occur regularly. In addition to the economic impact, this practice increases the selection pressure of fungicide resistant isolates, and may decrease the efficiency of chemical control in a long term. The use of disease forecasting systems is able to prevent unnecessary fungicide sprays. For the development of such systems, it is essential to determine an action threshold for the application of fungicides in the orchards. The objectives of this work were: (i) to establish an action threshold for fungicide sprays based on the germination of C. acutatum conidia; (ii) to characterize the sensitivity of C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum isolates to trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in vitro and molecularly. Regarding the definition of the action threshold, treatments based on risk indices were compared to the control treatments and calendar based sprays, usually adopted by growers. The 15% conidia germination threshold was efficient in controlling the disease and reducing the number of fungicide applications. In the fungicide sensitivity tests, two methods were used to determine the EC50, the spiral gradient dilution for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, and the method of conidial germination inhibition for trifloxystrobin. Isolates collected between 1999 and 2016 were used. The mean EC50 of the isolate collection determined by the spiral gradient dilution method ranged from 0.158 to 0.297 μg/ml and from 0.1 to 0.182 μg/ml for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, respectively. Mean EC50 of trifloxystrobin estimated by the conidial germination inhibition method was 0.002 μg/ml. No mutations or EC50 values indicated shifts of fungicide sensitivity on the isolates. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 15/06007-2 - Postbloom fruit drop: definition of the action threshold for chemical control and identification of fungicide resistant strains
Grantee:André Bueno Gama
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master