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Cardiovascular responses to electrical stimulation of carotid sinus in conscious normotensive and Hypertensive rats (SHR)

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Gean Domingos da Silva Souza
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Rubens Fazan Júnior; Fernando Silva Carneiro; Davi José de Almeida Moraes; Alexandre Alves da Silva; Daniel Breseghello Zoccal
Advisor: Rubens Fazan Júnior

Arterial baroreflex is the main short-term regulation mechanism of blood pressure (BP), keeping it under narrow limits of variation. The increasing of BP stimulates mechanical sensors (baroreceptors), which lead to inhibition of sympathetic drive and increasing cardiac activity of vagus nerve, resulting in decrease (normalization) of the BP. Electrical stimulation of afferent baroreceptor is an approach that emerged in the 60s and is now being used in patients with resistant hypertension. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation of CS promote hemodynamic and autonomic responses in normotensive and SHR. The aim of this study was to characterize hemodynamic responses, heart rate (HR) and BP variability, and evaluate vascular changes to electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus (CS) in normotensive or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR and Wistar rats with 300g (15 to 18 wk) were anesthetized (ketamine and xylazine) and implanted with electrodes in CS and a catheter into femoral artery. On the next day, after baseline recording of the BP, animals were subjected to electrical stimulation of CS with pulses of 1 mA, 1 ms and 15, 30, 45 or 60 Hz during 20 s. Following, a continuously or intermittently (20 / 20s ON / OFF) prolonged stimulation (60 min) with pulses of 1 mA, 1 ms and 30 Hz was applied to CS of rats. Another SHR group was implanted with a miniaturized stimulator connected to CS electrodes, capable of generating uninterruptedly pulses of 3 V, 1 ms, and 30 Hz, intermittently (20/20s ON/OFF). On the next day, after baseline recording of BP, the stimulator was turned on, and CS was stimulated during 48 h. After the end of stimulation, another BP recording was performed and the mesenteric bed of rats was removed for analysis of vascular reactivity. Short-term (20 s) electrical stimulation of CS induced a hypotensive response that was greater in SHR (??= -16 to -48 mmHg, n = 14) than in normotensive rats (? = -19 to -28 mmHg, n = 10). Hypotensive response was dependent on stimulation frequency only in SHR. A bradycardic response, similar in both groups (Wistar and SHR) and not dependent of the frequency of stimulation was also observed. In prolonged stimulation (60 min), performed continuously or intermittently, hypotension and bradycardia were observed during whole stimulation period. Hypotensive effect observed during 60 min stimulation of the CS was greater in SHR (-38 ± 9 mmHg) than in Wistar rats (-15 ± 5 mmHg). The symbolic analysis, before and during the stimulation of the CS revealed an increase in the percentage of 2UV type sequences of HR (related to cardiac vagal modulation) from 37 ± 3 to 45 ± 4 %. Spectral analysis showed in the decrease power of BP spectrum in LF band (related to heart and vascular sympathetic modulation) from 3.6 ± 0.3 to 0.7 ± 0.1 mmHg2 only in normotensive animals. SHR chronically stimulated group (48 h) showed lower BP after the end of the stimulus (173 ± 5 vs 150 ± 5 mmHg). However, the variability of HR and BP was not changed by chronic stimulation of the CS. Moreover, chronic electrical stimulation of the CS increased the reactivity of mesenteric arteries to acetylcholine and phenylephrine, both in the presence or absence of the endothelium. The hypotensive response lasted after 60 minutes after the shutdown of the stimulation device. In conclusion, the electrical stimulation of CS in normotensive or SHR conscious rats is effective in decreasing BP and HR and promotes changes in the variability of HR and BP, consistent with reduction of sympathetic modulation in normotensive animals. Additionally, the chronic stimulation of the CS induced changes in resistance vessels. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 13/13269-8 - Effects of chronic electrical stimulation of carotid sinus in cardiovascular function in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Grantee:Gean Domingos da Silva Souza
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate