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Hemodynamic and respiratory evaluation in sheep submitted to sedation with xylazine or dexmedetomidine antagonized with atipamezol

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Douglas do Carmo Alonso
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FMVZ/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Silvia Renata Gaido Cortopassi; Aline Magalhães Ambrósio; Denise Tabacchi Fantoni; Ewaldo de Mattos Junior; Denise Aya Otsuki
Advisor: Silvia Renata Gaido Cortopassi

Adrenergic alpha 2 agonists are sedatives used in ruminants clinical routine and have, among others, the advantage of specific antagonists which increase the safety of these drugs. Given the scarcity of studies on the hemodynamic and respiratory parameters in sheep in standing position and undergoing sedation with xylazine or dexmedetomidine with subsequent reversal by atipamezol, this study was performed. For this purpose were used 12 male sheep, aged between one and two years, average weight 37,7kg. Sheep were divided into two groups of six animals that were submitted to two different treatments with a mean interval of three weeks, in a study of prospective hidden and random type, being designated as XILA Group (xylazine hydrochloride 0.2 mg/kg) and DEX Group (dexmedetomidine hydrochloride 15 µg/kg) given by intramuscular route. For the installation of pulmonary artery catheter, the animals were anesthetized with facial mask with isofluorane in oxygen, and were intubated and maintained under anesthesia with the same agent until the end of instrumentation. After recovery of anesthesia, we evaluated the hemodynamic, blood gas and respiratory parameters during the first 60 minutes with animals in standing position, to obtain the baseline parameters. Completed this evaluation, the animals were submitted to sedation protocols according to their group. The parameters were checked and registered to 5 (S5), 15 (S15) and 30 minutes (S30) after sedation, and after application of 30 µg/kg atipamezole by intramuscular route to 5 (R5) and 15 minutes (R15). Frequency and heart rate, systemic blood pressure, hemodynamic parameters, respiratory rate, arterial and mixed venous blood gas analysis, core temperature, blood glucose and degree of sedation were evaluated. Ventilatory and hemodynamic indices were calculated. The onset period in XILA and DEX were 3.9 and 5.2 minutes. Xylazine promoted more intense sedation, with a significant difference between the groups at 5 and 15 minutes after alpha 2 administration (S5 and S15). After sedation, significant decrease in heart rate was observed in both groups, which reflected in cardiac output, cardiac index and mean arterial pressure. There was no significant increase in systemic vascular resistance in both groups, but after atipamezol was significantly lower in the XILA group. Xylazine caused tachypnea, which was inhibited after atipamezol. There were no clinically significant changes in PaCO2, PaO2, SaO2 nor in the ventilation indices, indicating that there was no hypoxemia, hypercapnia or hypoventilation during sedation period. Blood glucose rose significantly in both groups, remained higher even after antagonist. After administration of atipamezol sheep needed 10.0 and 11.7 minutes to remain in standing position and 19.3 and 30 minutes to reverse the effects of dexmedetomidine and xylazine, respectively. Xylazine and dexmedetomidine promoted safe sedation with few hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory effects, suggesting that the intramuscularly route is suitable for sedation of sheep with xylazine or dexmedetomidine (AU)

Grantee:Douglas Do Carmo Alonso
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate