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Study of the role of quail as reservoirs for avian infectious bronchitis virus

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Carolina Torres Alejo
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FMVZ/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Paulo Eduardo Brandão; Mattia Cecchinato; Giovanni Franzo; Fabio Gregori; Sueli Akemi Taniwaki Miyagi
Advisor: Paulo Eduardo Brandão

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and molecular diversity of coronavirus in quail and laying hens raised on the same farms and quail only farms, to determine the role of quail as reservoir for avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). To this end, two investigations were carried out, one in the São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013, when some farmers started quail vaccination with Massachusetts IBV serotype after surveillance carried out in 2009-2010 and the other in two regions of Northern Italy, in 2015. In the Brazilian study, samples were collected as pools of tracheas, lungs, reproductive tract, kidneys and enteric contents from quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) and laying hens showing IB-like symptoms, while, in the Italian study, samples were collected as pools of tracheal and cloacal swabs and intestine/enteric content from European quail (Coturnix coturnix), showing enteric disorders. All samples were tested by a nested RT-PCR targeted to the 3\'UTR of the Gammacoronavirus genus. Positive samples were submitted to RT-PCR to the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase gene (RdRp) and two different RT-PCRs to the spike gene, including a typing-multiplex one. Two other RT-PCRs were used to detect the avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Avian coronavirus was found in all types of samples analyzed in quail and chickens from both type of creations, aMPV subtype B was found in chickens (Brasil) and the NDV was not observed in any samples. Based on the DNA sequences for the RdRp gene, Brazilian and Italian quail strains clustered within either Gammacoronavirus or Deltacoronavirus genus, while, for one Brazilian sample, it was detected co-infection with the two genuses. Phylogeny based on partial S1 subunit sequences showed that the gammacoronaviruses detected in the Brazilian and Italian quail belong to the Brazil type and 793/B, respectively. These results suggest that quail are susceptible to Gamma and Deltacoronavirus and that quail avian coronavirus share spike genes identical to chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV); thus, quail might act as reservoirs for avian coronaviruses. Also, Massachusetts vaccination was not efficient to control IBV in Brazilian quail. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/15007-8 - Occurrence, diversity and molecular pathogenicity of avian coronavirus in quail
Grantee:Carolina Torres Alejo
Support type: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate