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Molecular analysis of patients with congenital hypothyroidism caused by default organification of iodide

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Ester Saraiva Brust
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: São Paulo.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Medicina (FM/SBD)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Suemi Marui; Janete Maria Cerutti; Ericka Barbosa Trarbach
Advisor: Suemi Marui

The main role of the thyroid gland is to produce T3 and T4, which promote the regulation of body energy intake. Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a systemic metabolic disorder where T3 and T4 production during neonatal period is insufficient. CH due to dyshormonogenesis is a disease caused by inborn errors in T3 and T4 synthesis, with autosomal recessive inheritance. Mutations in NIS, SLC26A4, DUOX2, DUOXA2, TPO, TG and DEHAL-1 genes have been described. The iodide organification defect (IOD) is the most common cause of dyshormonogenesis, being the TPO defect the most frequent, followed by defects in DUOX2 and DUOXA2 proteins. TPO is responsible for iodide oxidation, tyrosine iodination and its coupling. Seventy mutations have been described throughout the gene. As a heme peroxidase, TPO requires H2O2 to its regular function. The main catalytic core for H2O2 generation in thyroid is the DUOX2/DUOXA2 complex. Twenty five mutations have been described in DUOX2 gene and only one mutation in DUOXA2 gene. In our previous study, we evaluated patients with CH after 3 years of age to establish their etiologic diagnosis, by combining serum TG, thyroid ultrasound, and radioiodide uptake with 131I. Seven patients were diagnosed with IOD. In these patients, we evaluated TPO gene and identified several already described SNPs. One patient had the p.Q660E mutation in heterozygous state, another patient had the SNP p.R584Q in homozygous state and a third one had p.Q660E and p.584Q in compound heterozygous state. The aims of this study were to search for mutations in DUOX2 and DUOXA2 genes in patients with IOD and perform a functional study of TPO p.R584Q change. For the molecular study, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of each patient and parents, followed by PCR, and automatic sequence, and the results were compared with normal sequences of each gene (GenBank). For functional analysis of TPO p.R584Q, HeLa cells were transfected with pcDNA plasmids containing normal and altered TPO gene and the protein activity was assessed by AmplexRed system. In silico analyzes were performed with the bioanalysis programs: PolyPhen, MutationTaster, SIFT and PSIPRED. At the end of the molecular study, in DUOX2 gene we identified 20 previously described SNPs, including the functional p.H678R SNP (rs57659670), present in heterozygous state in 3 patients. We also identified the new p.A1087V change in heterozygous state in one patient. According to bioassay programs datas, p.A1087V change is damage and p.H678R SNP is tolerable. In DUOXA2 gene we identified five previously described polymorphisms and no mutation. In TPO functional study, we observed a significant activity decrease of TPO p.R584Q compared to normal TPO (5% of activity; p=0.0193). According to bioassay programs datas, p.R584Q is damaging. Three patients showed no changes in TPO, DUOX2 and DUOXA2 genes studied regions. A review of clinical and laboratory data suggested the presence of other altered proteins, such as TG, Pendrin or TSH receptor. One patient had the new DUOX2 p.A1087V alteration in heterozygous state and no other changes in the studied regions of evaluated genes, suggesting that there could be changes in other nonevaluated regions or the monoallelic expression of DUOX2. The functional DUOX2 p.H678R SNP was identified in three patients with changes in TPO: one with p.R584Q change in homozygous state and another one with p.R584Q and p.Q660E in compound heterozygous state. These cases have the two alleles of TPO changed, justifying their IOD. A third case showed only the TPO p.Q660E mutation in heterozygous state. We speculate that the patient may present changes in regions nonevaluated or the monoallelic expression of TPO. We conclude that we defined the molecular diagnosis of four patients, that showed significant changes in evaluated genes, and that TPO p.R584Q change is functionally harmful, causing IOD (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/02627-5 - Molecular analysis of patients with congenital hipothyroidism by iodine organification defect
Grantee:Ester Saraiva Brust
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master