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The role of SET protein in miR-9 methylation profile and DNA repair in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Author(s):
Maryna Aguilar Tannous
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Master's Dissertation
Press: Ribeirão Preto.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (PCARP/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Andréia Machado Leopoldino; Maria Sol Brassesco Annichini; Luiz Carlos Conti de Freitas
Advisor: Andréia Machado Leopoldino
Abstract

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) onset and progression are characterized by acquisition of genetic and epigenetic alterations. SET protein is known as an oncoprotein and, recently, its accumulation was demonstrated in OSCC. Several functions have been attributed to SET, such as cell cycle control, cell survival, cell migration, histone acetylation, and response to oxidative stress. This context outstands SET as a therapeutic target, but first, it is essential to understand its role in tumorigenesis and progression in OSCC. The central hypothesis of this study refers to SET role in genomic instability and DNA repair, as well as miRNA epigenetic regulation, with impact in OSCC development and progression. Stable SET knockdown (shSET) was achieved using short hairpin RNA against SET mRNA in vitro (HN12 and Cal27, OSCC cell lines) and in vivo (HN12 xenografts tumors). Effects of SET knockdown were assessed in OSCC, in vitro e in vivo, regarding DNA methylation (MSP, methylation specific PCR) and expression of miR-9 (qRT-PCR), and DNA repair (mismatch and double-strand breaks/DSB repair). Genomic instability was addressed by means of five microsatellites (conventional PCR) to assess microsatellite instability (MSI), and comet assay to assess DNA damage (SSB, DSB, cross-link, etc.). The status of proteins involved in DSB repair (ATM, BRCA1 and MLH1) was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting (WB). The DNA damage response (DDR) induced by ionizing radiation (X-rays) was assessed in HN12 cells through clonogenic and cell cycle assays; proteins associated with apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle and repair were assessed by WB. SET knockdown in HN12 cells modified miR-9 transcription through hypermethylation partial reversal for miR-9-1 locus, both in vitro and in vivo, and for miR-9-3 in vitro, with increase of miR-9 and miR-9* levels. Analysis of 5 microsatellites showed changes in the allelic profile of two markers, D5S346 and D2S123, in HN12 shSET cells (in vitro) and HN12 shSET xenografts tumors (in vivo) compared to their controls, suggesting MSI and it\'s a clue of SET role in mismatch repair. HN12 shSET cells showed decreased DNA damage and increased DSB repair protein levels (MLH1, ATM, p-ATM and BRCA1) compared to HN12 shCTRL. In the first 48 hours, HN12 shSET X-rays-induced DDR showed lower loss of viability (lower % in subG0/G1), increased G2/M checkpoint, higher levels of active ATM, p21, LC3B-II, and less PARP and caspase-8 cleavage than HN12 shCTRL. These results suggest a higher efficiency of DSB damage response and activation of survival pathways in the presence of SET knockdown. However, 12 days after radiotherapy, HN12 shSET cells presented a tendency for higher intrinsic radiosensitivity in relation to control. Therefore, our findings indicate a SET involvement in miR-9 transcriptional regulation, and in mismatch and DSB repair, with potential implications in oral tumorigenesis and progression. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 12/12928-5 - The role of SET protein in miR-9 methylation profile and DNA repair in human oral squamous cell carcinoma
Grantee:Maryna Aguilar Tannous
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Master