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Morphogenesis and growth analysis of three tropical grasses in response to defoliation frequency

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Ana Flávia Gouvéia de Faria
Total Authors: 1
Document type: Doctoral Thesis
Press: Piracicaba.
Institution: Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALA/BC)
Defense date:
Examining board members:
Carlos Guilherme Silveira Pedreira; Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade; Gustavo José Braga; Carlos Augusto de Miranda Gomide
Advisor: Carlos Guilherme Silveira Pedreira

For the potential of cultivars most commonly used as Marandu palisadegrass {Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) RD Webster [syn. Urochloa brizantha (A. Rich.) Stapf]; CIAT 6297}, with high forage production as Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.), and grasses recently released as Mulato II (Convert HD 364®) (Brachiaria híbrid CIAT 36061) to be rationally and intensively explored it is necessary to understand how harvest frequency affects productive responses, under a physiological standpoint. The objective was to evaluate and describe the effect of harvest frequency on the growth characteristics of Mulato II, Marandu, and Tifton 85, as well as to study morphogenesis characteristics in Mulato II and Marandu. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. The trial was carried out in Piracicaba - SP. Response variables included leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and leaf weight ratio (LWR). In addition phyllocron, number of live leaves per tiller (NLL), stem (SER) and leaf elongation rate (LER), leaf appearance rate (LApR), tiller density population (TDP) and leaf senescence (LSR). Mulato II is a option to intensify and diversify pasture grasses in tropical areas due to its high LAI, CGR, LWR and LAR. CGR was similar between Mulato II and Tifton 85 but LWR was highest to Mulato II. On the other hand, Tifton 85 starts the lowest LAI but has high NAR and reaches the same CGR to Mulato II, showing also as good forage option. The LApR and LER were higher an Marandu than Mulato II. Phyllochron was higher in Mulato II compared to Marandu. There was an interaction harvest frequency x year to phyllochron, and with 28 days the lowest phyllochron was at first year, and with 42 days there was no difference between two years. The LER, SER and LSR were higher with 42 days of harvest frequency. There was interaction harvest frequencies x year and cultivars x harvest frequencies to NLL. This was higher in the first year with 28 and 42 days, and at 42 days in both years studied. NLL was equal in Marandu and Mulato II with 28 days and higher in Marandu with 42 days. Marandu and Mulato II had higher NLL with 42 days. CGR is similar in Mulato II and Tifton 85, but the LWR is highest in Mulato II. Tifton 85 had lowest residual LAI, but high NAR and CGR similar to Mulato II. Mulato II and Tifton 85 used different mechanisms to achieve the same CGR. 28 days prioritizes leaf production. In morphogenesis, Marandu is the best because it presented the highest growth rates (LApR, LER, NLL) and lowest phyllochron. Despite Marandu was better than Mulato II, it did not reflect in greater herbage accumulation and nutritive value, due greater TDP in Mulato II. There was highest SER and LSR with 42 days, so 28 days is best to avoid high SER. When there is adequate precipitation, lowest frequency (28 days) increase harvest efficiency. (AU)

FAPESP's process: 11/17044-5 - Modeling of carbon assimilation, growth analysis and morphogenesis of two Brachiaria spp. swards under defoliation frequencies with and without irrigation.
Grantee:Ana Flávia Gouveia de Faria
Support Opportunities: Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate