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Cladistic analysis of Pachylinae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores)

Grant number: 09/03111-2
Support type:Scholarships abroad - Research
Effective date (Start): September 04, 2009
Effective date (End): September 18, 2009
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Zoology - Taxonomy of Recent Groups
Principal researcher:Marcos Ryotaro Hara
Grantee:Marcos Ryotaro Hara
Host: Peter Jager
Home Institution: Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades (EACH). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Research place: Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung (SGN), Germany  

Abstract

Opiliones is the third most diverse group in Arachnida, with ca. 6,000 species, only less diverse than Araneae and Acari. Considering this species rich group and its taxonomical history, there are still no propositions of phylogenetic relationships at species level for many groups, rendering evolutive studies considerably difficult. The taxonomy of the group is complex and confusing due to the elevated number of monotypic genera and artificial groups. The order comprises four suborders and among them, Laniatores stands out for 4000 described species, which occur mainly in Tropical regions. Laniatores is subdivided in 27 families and amongst them, the most important Neotropical family is Gonyleptidae, with over 800 species, which are organized in 16 subfamilies. The subfamily Pachylinae stands out because it is responsible for ca. half of the Gonyleptidae richness, with 400 species, and according to Pinto-da-Rocha (2002) it is a polyphyletic group. Considering the importance of this group for Neotropical fauna, it is intend to study Pachylinae through cladistic analysis, following the modern trend of systematic studies. Therefore, the study will corroborate or not the monophyly of the subfamily, with emphasis on two clades: one comprising genera Graphinotus, Huralvioides and Pachylus; and another one, which groups Discocyrtus, Hypophyllonomus, Nanophareus and Pachyloides. The emphasis on the first clade is because it includes Pachylus, which names the subfamily. Besides, there is a need to propose clearer relationship with subfamilies considered as basal in Gonyleptidae. The emphasis on the second clade is because of genus Discocyrtus, the largest genus (ca. 100 species) of the subfamily. Therefore, it will need a meticulous examination of the species of that group, which possibly is not monophyletic, to choose the proper taxa which will be included in the analysis. It is intended to include more genera of Pachylinae to propose clear relationships with other taxa in the analysis. As outgroup, it will include at least two taxa of each subfamily considered as basal in Gonyleptidae and which monophyly is still not corroborated (as Tricommatinae); a representative of each subfamily of more derived clade in Gonyleptydae and monophyletic; besides representatives of close families, such as Cosmetidae and Stygnidae. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
HARA, MARCOS R.; PINTO-DA-ROCHA, RICARDO; BENEDETTI, ALIPIO R.. Redescription of Juticus furcidens Roewer, 1943 (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae), with a discussion of its relationships in the subfamily Gonyleptinae. Zootaxa, v. 4422, n. 3, p. 422-430, . (09/03111-2, 08/06604-7)
PINTO-DA-ROCHA, RICARDO; HARA, MARCOS RYOTARO. Redescription of Platygyndes Roewer 1943, a false Gonyleptidae, (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae). ZOOKEYS, n. 143, p. 1-12, . (09/03111-2, 08/06604-7)

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