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The meaning and role of the model of human nature in Spinoza's philosophy.

Grant number: 22/16875-5
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): June 01, 2023
Effective date (End): February 28, 2027
Field of knowledge:Humanities - Philosophy - History of Philosophy
Principal Investigator:Luís César Guimarães Oliva
Grantee:Gabriel Frizzarin Ramalhães de Souza
Host Institution: Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas (FFLCH). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:18/19880-4 - Power, conflict and freedom: Spinoza and the ways of Modern and Contemporary Political Philosophy about democracy, AP.TEM
Associated scholarship(s):24/02787-2 - The model of human nature in Spinoza's philosophy: perfection and improvement, BE.EP.DR


The concept of model of human nature [exemplar naturae humanae] is situated in Spinoza's philosophy in a complex situation: on the one hand, it seems that this concept has no foundation due to the relativity of the notions of good and evil, the formation of abstract universals, the emphasis on singular essences and the criticism of finalism; on the other hand, the notion of model is restored in the Ethics IV and in the Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect as key not only to understand the "genuine good" and the "most perfect human nature", but also to determine what is good and bad in the affects and to delimit the fields of servitude and freedom. In this context, it is necessary to interrogate what the concept of the exemplar of human nature means and how Spinoza can make use of it without breaking the coherence of his philosophical project. Therefore, this research project aims to understand the meaning and function of the model of human nature in the ethical discussion of Spinoza's philosophy.

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