Cytogenetic and phylogenetic analysis of the population of Physalaemus sp. from Riachão-MA: a contribution to the analysis of the secondary contact zone between lineages of the species complex P. cuvieri-P. ephippifer.
The species complex Physalaemus cuvieri-Physalaemus ephippifer has a complex evolutionary and taxonomic history. Recently, the recognition of four independent evolutionary lineages in "P. cuvieri" (Lineages 1-4 of "P. cuvieri") and of its paraphyly with respect to P. ephippifer represented notable advances in the phylogenetic study of this clade. Posteriorly, secondary contact zones between groups of the complex were identified, with emphasis on i) the SPAB-VNM-TS/Imp region, located within the municipalities of São Pedro de Água Branca-MA, Vila Nova dos Martírios-MA, Trecho Seco-MA and Imperatriz-MA and ii) Balsas-MA, where there are, respectively, evidence of historical hybridization between L1 and P.ephippifer and between L1 and L3. Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were detected in P. ephippifer and in the population of SPAB-VNM-TS/Imp, however notable characteristics differ these karyotypes from each other. Although the role of the secondary contact in the karyotypic diversification of this complex is evident, the geographic extension of the contact zones previously identified remains unknown. In this context, the present project plans to promote the cytogenetic and phylogenetic analysis of the population of Physalaemus sp. from Riachão, a municipality located between the identified contact zones. The cytogenetic analysis will be promoted through silver staining, C banding and the detection of chromosomal markers that have shown to be relevant to the group (the repetitive DNA PcP190, PepBS, Cl02, the gene for snRNA U2 and the probe Zqper/8p) through FISH. The phylogenetic analysis will be based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. The resulting data will allow the search for evidence of hybridization/introgression in Riachão, contributing to the study of the extension of the contact zones between L1 and L3 and between L1 and P. ephippifer.
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