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Investigation of CXCL8 gene expression after treatment periodontal disease of individuals with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Grant number: 22/12174-2
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): December 01, 2022
Effective date (End): November 30, 2023
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Dentistry - Periodontology
Principal Investigator:Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel Caminaga
Grantee:Lucas César da Costa Quil
Host Institution: Faculdade de Odontologia (FOAr). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Araraquara. Araraquara , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) and Periodontitis (P) are two diseases that have been increasingly common in patients at the present time. Periodontitis is a multifactorial immunoinflammatory disorder mediated by the host in response to microbial dysbiosis, and has been recognized as the sixth major complication associated with T2DM, as a greater extent and severity of Periodontitis was detected in individuals with T2DM. T2DM is also a multifactorial disease with an exacerbated inflammatory response. In DM2, alterations occur in the metabolism of carbohydrates, followed by proteins and lipids, due to secretion dysfunction or cellular sensitivity to insulin. Interleukin 8 (IL-8, or CXCL8) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemotactic for neutrophils, acting in the first line of defense of the immune system, and has confirmed participation in Periodontitis, having been identified in gingiva and gingival fluid. Previously, our research group identified by transcriptome that the CXCL8 gene was differentially expressed in circulating leukocytes from patients affected by decompensated DM2+dyslipidemia+Periodontitis. The objective of this longitudinal non-randomized clinical study is to verify, in an independent sample of patients, whether replication of the results observed previously of the differential expression of the CXCL8 gene in patients with T2DM and Periodontitis will occur. Furthermore, we intend to verify how CXCL8 mRNA levels behave before and after 90 days of non-surgical periodontal treatment, and whether these are associated with glycemic, lipid and periodontal metabolic parameters. 100 individuals will be evaluated divided into 5 groups (with n=20 each): DM2_Descomp_P (DM2 metabolically decompensated + P); DM2_Comp_P (metabolically compensated DM2 + P); DM2_sem_P (with DM2 and without P); Periodontitis (without T2DM and with moderate or severe periodontitis); and Control (without DM2 and without P). All will have their glycemic, lipid and periodontal profile examined by means of a blood test (free for the patient) before (zero) and after 90 days of non-surgical periodontal treatment. Individuals in the groups without Periodontitis will receive prophylaxis and reinforcement of oral hygiene instruction during the same periods. At the time of the blood tests, an aliquot will be used to separate leukocytes for extraction of total RNA. The expression of the CXCL8 gene will be investigated by RT-qPCR (Reverse-Transcriptase followed by Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction) by the TaqMan system. After normalization by endogenous control, the expression of the CXCL8 gene will be compared between all groups and periods, and its correlation with the glycemic, lipid and periodontal profile of individuals will be analyzed, in addition to linear and multiple logistic regressions. It should be clarified that this project is included in a larger project that has the support of FAPESP and has a team of Graduate Students and Professors working on the selection of participants and maintenance sessions, which is already underway. Furthermore, the candidate for this Scientific Initiation scholarship is already voluntarily assisting in clinical activities. Therefore, the number of patients in each group is feasible to be investigated in this CI project. The results of the present project will complement data from other projects that are being carried out by the research group and will contribute to increase the evidence of the interrelationship of DM2 and Periodontitis, and to understand the interaction of systemic health with oral health.

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